The nation was the site of numerous advanced pre-Columbian civilizations, including the Olmec, the Toltec, the Maya, and the Aztec before first contact with the Europeans. Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in 1521, and won its independence 1824. With the backing of the United States, Mexico has grown to become a regional power.
When Spain was conquered by Napoleonic France in 1810, the royal family led by Ferdinand VII of Spain fled to its colony of New Spain. Ferdinand built a palace in Mexico City to house him and his family. Ferdinand established dictorial rule over Mexico, which angered many peasants and colonists. In order to keep the population from rebellion, the Mexican Army was established by the king. The Mexican Army was tasked with keeping order from the countryside to cities.In 1820, the Mexicans decided enough was enough. There were already revolutions in other countries, so the Mexicans felt that they should rebel too. Two faction supporting independence appeared; the first one was known as the Empire Army, led by supporters of Agustin de Iturbide, the self-proclaimed Emperor of Mexico; and the other one was one supporting Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican Republican Army, which called for democracy in Mexico. Fights broke out between the Empire Army, the Mexican Army, and the Mexican Republican Army in what is known as the Mexican Civil War.
In 1826, the US Armed Forces entered the country, supporting the Mexican Republican Army. In 1828, the MRA won, and Santa Anna was installed as the country's first president.
Following the end of the Mexican Civil War, the USA and Mexico were tasked with rebuilding the nation. New roads and buildings were built, and old ones were improved on. Industrialization took place, as well as improving land for agriculture. A new Mexican Republican Army was established, which was a standing army with more cannons and horses. A strong navy was built, and docks and harbors were built or improved on, greatly helping merchants and the economy. Mexico City was rebuilt, and the capital city became the grandest city in all of Mexico.
War and ExpansionFollowing the independence of South America, Mexico became in dispute with Columbia over the region of Panama. While Columbian forces controlled it, Mexico claimed it belonged to it. In order to back these claims up, Mexico joined the North American Alliance (United States of America, Canada, Winnipeg, and Cuba) in 1832. Mexico also sent soldiers to the border of Mexico and the disputed area. Columbian troops were also present. In 1834, Panama revolted, resulting in the death of Columbian and Mexican soldiers. Mexico then moved its soldiers in Panama, and the Battle of Panama City between Mexican and Columbian soldiers erupted, beginning the Americas War. Mexican soldiers would fight in many battles, including the Battle of El Porvenir and the Battle of La Paz.
Following the war, the economy boomed in Mexico. With the establishment of eight new nations (seven in South America, the other is Panama) Mexico's trade expanded. Mexico's largest trading partner was Panama as well as Cuba. To allow for easier trade, numerous ports were built on the southwestern coast. These ports soon expanded into cities, with the biggest being Ciudad del Sur. General Santa Anna, hero of the Americas War, became president of Mexico. His rule lasted until 1876, which was when he died. Following his death conflict broke out between the liberal cities and the conservative countryside. Beginning in 1880, the Conservative Party would hold sway in Mexican politics, and the election of Porfiro Diaz in 1894 brought the Conservative Party to power. However, there was opposition in the northern part of the country by many liberals, and the Mexican Revolution broke out.
Revolution and Aftermath
In the northern part of Mexico, Mexican rebels were in control. Led by Jose Doroteo Arango Arambula, the rebels began raids on the Conservative south. While Diaz controled most of the country, the rebel's closeness to the United States and wealth of the northern provinces gave him more money and resources. Arambula's men commonly raided trains going to the north, while ending all train routes to the south. The north and the south had ended trade, cutting off much of the wealth heading to the south. Diaz was not going to let this happened and ordered his troops to invade the north. Several battles were fought at the border, and the south was forced to retreat. In 1906, Diaz ordered another attack, this time coming from Baja California. This one managed to get by rebels lines and the troops headed to Hermosillo. Once the troops began to attack the city, the rebels managed to surround them and defeated them. After the battle, the rebels began a drive into southern Mexico, but were more successful due to their resources. In 1908, Diaz was assassinated and the rebels took control of Mexico City, ending the revolution. Arambula was announced president.