The Mexican-Colombian War was fought from 1899 to 1901, primarily in the country of Central America. The war began with the Mexican occupation of western Central America, claiming that the Centroamerican government was aiding rebels in the Yucatan. Determined to protect its neighbories and client state, the Colombians under Eusebio Iglesias declared war and invaded Central America, fighting the Mexicans for two years until their defeat at Rancho Pineda in June of 1901, which resulted in the Treaty of Pensacola.

The Americans, who were nominally aligned with the Mexicans throughout the conflict, used their influence in the treaty negotiation to finally force the Colombians into ending their stalling of construction of the Panama Canal - tensions over the Panama Canal nearly turned into war the following year between the Colombians and the United States.

The conflict is notable as it was the first check on Colombian military might in the region and marked one of the sole setbacks in the otherwise illustrious career of Iglesias. The fighting ravaged Central America, which suffered from decades of subsequent instability and added to the volatility of the isthmus region, forcing American occupations or interventions on seven occasions between 1903 and 1990. The war also was the last triumph of Mexican Emperor Eduardo I, and established the brave young cavalry officer Jose Arambula as a war hero due to his actions at Rancho Pineda, actions which would catapult him to great significance in the ensuing Mexican Civil War.

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