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Mesopotamian civilizations (Crescents)

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Mesopotamia is the name designed for a group of cultures located to the west of the Indus valley civilisation. This group of cultures and civilisations is arguably the second or third oldest in the world. Rather than a single cultural group, as several other origins of civilisation are, Mesopotamia has been consistently invaded and new civilisations have settled in the area, including tribes from Semitic, Uralic, Indo-Iranian and other groups. 

Mesopotamian culture, however, acted as a sprachbund, with many languages sharing similar areal features and many cultural buildings being the same, despite the invasion records, from the first few appearances of Mesopotamian culture (Kiengiric records around -5000) until the appearance of iron age empires (such as the Suurkad and Aryanam civilisations) which prove long-standing cohabitation of several different cultural and linguistic groups that have moved into the region for centuries.

While always overshadowed by the nearby and much larger Indus civilisation, Mesopotamia was extremely important for the development of human civilisation.


Chronology

Mesopotamia is characterised by the constant inclusion of previous cultures into the cultural substratum of the region, showing great diversity culturally religiously and linguistically. The major periods have seen civilisations stem from cities in the region. The cultures are extremely diverse, but they are characterised from division into four generalised regions;  Kiengiri in the south (eventually partially replaced by the Elamites to the east), Semitic cultures in the centre and west of the nation (Assyrians to the north in the Euphrates basin and Akkadians to the south); Atur-osh and Suumi to the north (the newest culture group in the region, centralised in the Tigris basin): and Aryanam to the east near and around the Zagros.

Dates Period Era
10,000 -8,000 BCE Pre-pottery Neolithic A Stone Age
8,000 - 5000 BCE Pre-pottery Neolithic B Stone Age
5000 - 4500 Hasuna, Samara, Uruk cultures Late Stone Age
4500-4000 Kiengiric Golden Age Early Bronze Age
3900-3700 Ur Dynasties; Nippur period Early Bronze Age
3700-3500 Early Semitic influx; Akkadian Empire Early Bronze Age
3500-3300 Akkadian downfall; Ur III Middle Bronze Age
3300-3100 Fall of Ur III to Elamite influence Middle Bronze Age
3100-2900 Incursions of nomadic Semites Middle Bronze Age
2900-2500 Assyrian, Babylonian and Elamite bloom Middle Bronze Age
2500-2300 Invasions of the Suomen and the Erza Middle Bronze Age
2300-1900 Small State Period Middle Bronze Age
1900-1625 Babylonian dominance Middle Bronze Age
c.1625 Societal collapse after Minoan Eruption -
1625-1500 Reconstruction of empires Late Bronze Age
1500-1430 Aturoshic dominance Late Bronze Age

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