The Federation of Mesopotamia (Arabic: الاتحاد الرافدين, al-Ittiḥād al-rāfidayn; Kurdish: Federasyona Mezopotamya), colloquially known as Mesopotamia (الرافدين, al-rāfidayn; Mezopotamya), is a sovereign nation located within the Middle East. Historically known as Iraq, the modernday began following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following World War I, with the region becoming a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Originally established as a monarchy under the control of the Hashemites, Iraq formally became a republic in 1958 and would remain under the control of the Ba'ath Party until the 1990s.
From 1979 until his assassination in 1995, Iraq was under the dictatorial control of Saddam Hussein. Under Saddam's regime, the nation's regional importance became greater as the economy and military were expanded upon. Despite these improvements, human rights were grossly ignored. From the 1980s onward, Iraq became involved in two regional wars. The Iran-Iraq War lasted from 1980 until 1988, resulting in thousands of deaths and ending with a status quo ante bellum. In 1990, Iraq would launch an invasion of neighboring Kuwait in an attempt to annex the nation, beginning the Gulf War. The war ended following the liberation of Kuwait by an American-led coalition.
A series of uprisings followed the Gulf War, with which the government fought back hard. This changed in 1995 when Saddam Hussein is killed in his home by tank artillery. The subsequent power vacuum in the Iraqi government gave the rebels an opportunity to gain more ground. Civil war would take place for the next five years, with the Sunni government fighting the Shia majority in the south and the Kurdish minority in the north.
After years of fighting, a ceasefire and peace treaty is established between the waring factions. With strong backing by the Iraqi people and the international community, a democratic constitution was adopted in 2002. The three waring groups would establish themselves as sovereign states under a new federal government. As part of the good feelings towards equality, the name Iraq was formally dropped and replaced with Mesopotamia. Since the 2000s, the nation has begun to rebuild its infrastructure and international standing. During the Arab Spring, Mesopotamia became the standard bearer for the many democratic movements across the Middle East.
The Federation of Mesopotamia is a federation comprised of three states and two charter cities.
- Charter Cities