Alternate History

Mengjiang (Twilight of a New Era)

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Timeline: Twilight of a New Era

OTL equivalent: Mengjiang (1936-1945)
Flag of the Mengjiang
Flag of Mengjiang
(and largest city)
Kalgan (present day Zhangjiakou)
Chinese (Standard Mandarin), Mongolian and Japanese
  others Russian
Religion State Shinto, Buddhism and Taoism
Ethnic Groups
Han Chinese and Mongol
  others Manchu, Korean, Japanese and Russians
Government Unitarian republic (under supervision of Japan)
Territory President Demchugdongrub
Premier State Council
Area 608,894 km²
Population 3.9 million 
Established 1932
Independence from First Chinese Republic
  declared 1932
Annexation to Second Chinese Republic
  date 19??
Currency Manchukuo yuan
Organizations Greater East Asian Prosperity Alliance (since 1932)

Mengjiang (蒙疆, Měngjiāng) was a Japanese puppet state established in 1932. Its stated purpose was to create a Greater Mongolia. However, the main purpose was to exploit the reserves of coal and iron in Mengjiang, and export it to Manchukuo and Empire of Japan. It was bordered by Mongolia, China, and Manchukuo.

During the Second Sino-Japanese and Great Pacific Wars it was occupied by the Red Army and Mongolian People's Army. It was returned to the Republic of China at the end of the War.

The Three Proposals

The political status of Mengjiang was unclear during its existence. At least three proposals where planned of its future:
a) an independent state, advocating or becoming a future Greater Mongolian State,
b) an autonomous territory of Manchukuo, or
c) an autonomous province of the Chinese State Union. In any case all alternatives, would depend on the near future on Japanese advisors at all levels of the administration.

Mengjiang Map

Map of Mengjiang


The Mengjiang United Autonomous Government is chaired by Territory President, assisted by State Council. Japanese advisors are designated at all levels of the government. The Pan-Mongolian Peoples League was formed as the sole political party of the Mongolians in accord with the principles of Pan-Asianism and also to help maintain public order and promote Japan's Pan-Mongolism.

The Central Bank of Manchukuo was in charge of its finances and treasury by means of a delegate and a local branch.


A Mengjiang National Army was created from the previous Inner Mongolian Army that served as auxiliary force in the occupation of Mengjiang from China. The Mengjiang National Army was a Kwantung Army special force group under direct command, having native commanders alongside Japanese commanding officers, as in other auxiliary outer sections of the Kwantung Army. It participated as auxiliary to the Japanese Imperial Army in the campaigns of the North.

See also

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