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The Masmudis (Moorish: ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵎⵓⴹⴻⵏ Imasmuḍen, Spanish: Masmudíes) was a Moorish dynasty and, later, empire founded in the 12th century. The Masmudi state was stablished by Amghar ben Tumart among the Ghomara tribes of southern Mauritania. The Muyedis first established a Moor state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120. Awzal Amunalbal (†1163) succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Morabedis in governing Mauritania by 1147, when he conquered Marrakech and declared himself as King of the Moors. The Masmudis then extended their power over all Mauritania and Wandalus (Moorish Iberia) before a decade.
The Masmudi dominance of Wandalus continued until 1212, when king Amunalbal Izemrasen (1199–1214) was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Catholic princes of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Catholics in 1236 and 1248 respectively.
While the Masmudi empire decayed in the Iberian Peninsula, Carthage was conquered by emperor Frederick II in 1232, who retook the main places of the Kingdom of Africa, from Bizerta. Finally, a rebellion led by Arbanyit I of the Merinis took Marrakech and overthrown king Izri II, ending the Masmudi dynasty.
List of Masmudi rulers
- Amghar ben Tumart, 1121–1130
- Awzal Amunalbal, 1130–1163
- Yekub Yusef I, 1163–1184
- Yonan ben Awzal, 1184–1195
- Amunalbal Izemrasen, 1199–1214
- Yekub Yusef II, 1214–1227
- Yakim Awnakin, 1227–1229
- Izri I Arbamun, 1229–1232
- Brahim ben Yonan, 1232–1242
- Izri II Dawed, 1242–1248