Mary I (February 18, 1516 - 18 October, 1564) became Queen of England and Ireland on July 19, 1553 and was formally crowned on October 1, 1553 at the age of 37. Mary I was half Spanish through her mother, Catherine of Aragon, and half English through her father, King Henry VIII of England. She was the fourth Tudor Monarch to be crowned Queen of England and Ireland.
At the beginning of Mary's reign she had to deal with a rebellion by Thomas Wyatt, who was trying to place Elizabeth, Mary's sister, on the throne. This ultimately failed and Wyatt was tried and executed, while Elizabeth was only imprisoned due to her lack of knowledge of the rebellion.
At the beginning of Mary's reign she focused on finding a husband and thus producing an heir, to stop her sister Elizabeth from gaining the throne after her death. She went on to marry her second cousin, Prince Philip (later to be Philip II of Spain). Mary made sure that Philip would be styled as 'King of England' along with her and so both their names appear on legal documents.
Later in November, 1554, Mary I stated she had become pregnant by Philip and so held a thanksgiving event in London. Four months later in March of 1555 Mary bares a child, and names him Henry after her father who was named 'Defender of the Faith' by the Pope. She declared this to be the happiest day of her life.
During Mary' reign she began to bring England back to Catholicism from Protestantism. During her reign over 500 religious dissenters were burned at the stake. She also had Reginald Pole created Archbishop of Canterbury, and after he passed away Mary placed William Allen as the new Archbishop. Also many anti-Catholics were caught in England, such as John Foxe, and were executed.
In July, 1554 Mary married her second cousin, Prince Philip. 9 months after they were married Mary bore a child, and thus an heir. The couple had two children altogether:
|Henry IX||March 12, 1555||Elisabeth of Austria||27 September, 1615|
|Isabella of England||April 6, 1557||Sebastian I of Portugal||December 21, 1591|