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After the Siberian annexation of Northern Manchuria after the successful conclusion of Operation Manchurian Freedom in 1991, the remnants of former Manchuria were divided between the Siberian occupied zone in the north, and various factions and rebels to the south. In 1995 Northern Manchuria was fully incorporated into the USSR, creating the Manchurian Socialist Republic.
The territory of Manchuria, located in Asia, was a large territory located in Northwest China. The term Manchurian Territory was used to describe the Chinese settlements that existed in the area until the 1990 Siberian invasion. More recently the term has been used to incorrectly describe Manchurian Socialist Republic, the Siberian territory that came into existence at the conclusion of Operation Manchurian Freedom, the Siberian invasion to pacify the Chinese raiders of Manchuria.
Before the nuclear war in 1983 the area was under Chinese control, and had remained so since the conclusion of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, operated by the USSR in 1945.The territory became a base for the Chinese People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Civil War, which ensued from the end of World War II until 1949. The region was also used to transport Chinese forces in the Korean peninsula during the Korean War. The region was also a commonly disputed border between the USSR and China, culminating in the 1969 Sino-Soviet Border Conflict.
Today the entire area of Manchuria is under Siberian control, with the north controlled by The Manchurian Socialist Republic (Mandarin: 东北社会主义共和国, Russian: Маньчжурский Социалистической Республики), a constitutional republic of the USSR, and south as the Manchurian Territory.
In the twelfth century of the Common Era, the region of Manchuria was ruled by the Tungusic Jurchen, a vassal of Liao. Up to this point the area was believed to be settled by several nomadic tribes, most notably the Manchu, Ulchs and Hezhen, and later the Han dynasty, Cao Wei Dynasty, Western Jin Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, and several other minor kingdoms of China. The kingdom of Liao was formed by the Khitan people of western Manchuria, who would indirectly rule over Manchuria for several decades.
The native Tungusic Jurchen people overthrew the Liao, forming the Jin Dynasty, which ruled until 1234. Later the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled into the mid 1300's, would administrative the region as the Liaoyang province. An invasion of Liadong was lead from the region by Nahacu, a Mongol official of the Northern Yuan, in 1375. This invasion would later prove unsuccessful, causing the force to surrender to the Ming Dynasty thirteen years later. To protect the northern border regions the Ming would lead a pacification campaign against the Jurchens, solidifying control of Manchuria under Yongle Emperor.
In the late 16th century the unification of the Jurchen tribes would begin, led by Nurhaci, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin Dynasty, following decades of successful unification. The Jurchens, now commonly known as Manchus, supported the Ming general Wu Sangui, who would overthrow the established government in Beijing, founding the Qing Dynasty, ruling over all of the Chinese states. China would rule over Manchuria until 1858 when all Manchurian territory north of Amur was ceded to Russia following the Treaty of Aigun. In 1860 Manchuria was divided further under the Treaty of Peking, in which the area east of the Ussuri River was ceded to Russia.
Following the US nuclear strike on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945, the USSR launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, to liberate Chinese Manchuria under occupation by the Japanese.
The area of Manchuria was targeted by several nuclear strikes during the nuclear exchange, primarily in the southern portions of the region and around the coast. The region's important industrial infrastructure was targeted by several strikes, crippling the local government immensely. The region eventually fell into anarchy, with looting and other crimes being quite common. Several local military leaders began fighting for control, some claiming to be the true successor of the Chinese nation. Many refugees fled to the USSR and other neighboring region, searching for any grasp on stability.
Division of Manchuria
The majority of the population in Manchuria is Han Chinese. Manchus form a significant minority, and have been almost completely assimilated into the Han Chinese. The Manchu language has since become almost extinct. Other major ethnic groups include the Mongols, the Koreans, and the Russians.
The region of Manchuria is geographically dominated by the North China Craton, a large geographical region noted for its tilled and overlaid Precambrian rock formations. It is believed that prior to the Triassic Period, this area was independent of the Chinese mainland, creating the Khingan Mountains upon collision with the Siberian Craton.
Much of the surface of Manchuria consists of deep layers of loess, first formed by wind movements. Topsoil consists mostly of fertile Mollisols and Fluvents, except in the more mountainous parts where poorly developed Orthents can be found, as well as in the far north where Orthels is found.