The People's Republic of Manchuria, or just Manchuria, is a sovereign state located in eastern Asia. Manchuria is a unitary state bordered by Russia to the north, Korea to the south, and Mongolia and China to the west.
Manchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including the Manchus (or Jurchens), Ulchs, Hezhen (also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Xianbei, and Mohe have risen to power in the Northeast. Many Northeast Asian kingdoms have also risen to power in Manchuria, including Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Balhae. Yan State once occupied the Liaodong Peninsula, Han Chinese dynasties in China loosely controlled the southern parts of the region. During the Song dynasty, the Khitan set up the Liao Dynasty in Northeast China. Later, the Jurchen overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to conquer northern China. In AD 1234, the Jin dynasty fell to the Mongols, whose Yuan Dynasty was later replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.
See also: Qing dynasty
The Qing dynasty was founded by the Manchus. When the Ming dynasty was overthrown, the Qing conquered China over a period from 1618 to 1683. The Qing dynasty was officially established in 1644.
Manchuria was ruled by the Qing dynasty up until the 20th century; at that time, Manchuria was a Qing province that extended all the way to the Sea of Japan and Stanovy Mountains.
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out between China and Japan, part of the larger Pacific War. Japan won major battles in the war early on, and established puppet states in occupied lands. One of these puppet states was Manchukuo, which spanned the area of present-day Manchuria. Towards the defeat of Japan, the USSR conquered Manchukuo and Korea.
Post-Pacific WarWhen the Soviet Union incorporated both Manchuria and Korea into their nation with a Communist regime, the Qing royal family sent its wishes for the USSR to return their homeland to China. However, the Soviets continued to hold onto Manchuria. Manchuria and Korea became Soviet Socialist Republics, constituent republics of the USSR.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Manchuria gained its independence, although retaining its Communist government. Today, Manchuria has strong relations with Korea, but relations remain wary with China; China refuses to recognize Manchuria, claiming it as part of its sovereign territory.
Government and Politics