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Manchuria (Manchu: Манҗу Гурун, Manju Gurun; Russian: Маньчжурия, Manchzhuriya), officially known as the Republic of Manchuria (Манҗу Ирген Гурун, Manju Irgen Gurun; Республика Маньчжурия, Respublika Manchzhuriya), is a sovereign state that's located in Northeastern Asia. The nation is bordered by the Russian Federation in the north, Korea in the south, China in the southwest, and Mongolia in the west.
The modern day nation of Manchuria gained its origins in the late 19th Century, in which the Russian Empire expanded its power into the northeastern territories of the declining Qing Dynasty. Russian control over the territory became formal following the defeat of Japan in the Russo-Japanese War. During the Russian Civil War, Manchuria would become the main base of operations for the White Movement within Eurasia. The White-controlled period was short lived, as the Red Army had total control over Manchuria by 1922 (absorbing the region as the Manchu Soviet Socialist Republic).
Beginning in the Summer of 1941, the Republic of China launched an invasion of Manchuria (taking place along side the German invasion in Europe). Throughout the majority of World War II, the Soviet Union's main focus was on the Eastern Front, essentially leaving much of Manchuria under Chinese control until Germany's surrender in 1945. All of Manchuria was liberated by the end of the year. Manchuria became of national importance for the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War. The city of Dalny (the only Soviet warm-water port on the Pacific) served as the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet.
Manchuria gained independence in late 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Despite this, Manchuria has retained very close relations with Russia and most of the former Soviet republics. The port city of Dalny has been leased to Russia since the 1990s (which continue operate their Pacific Fleet in the port). Manchuria's strategic location between East Asia and Eurasia have benefited the new nation's economy and foreign policy.
The Manchu people currently make up the majority of the nation's population, while Russians currently make up over a third. Since gaining independence, the Russian population has decreased as they've migrated out of the nation (mostly resettling in Alaska and Russia). An autonomous republic for Koreans currently exists along the border with Korea. The two official languages of Manchuria are Manchu and Russian. The majority of Manchurians are adherent to the Eastern Orthodox Church. In smaller numbers, the nation also includes Buddhists, Shamanists, and Taoists.
The Republic of Manchuria is a unitary state comprised of 11 oblasts (Manchu: анто, anto; Russian: области, oblasti), one autonomous republic, and two cities of national importance. All of Manchuria's administrative divisions are subdivided into raions (районы, rayony).
- Andun Oblast (Andun)
- Chernoruchensk Oblast (Chernorechensk)
- Girin Oblast (Girin)
- Kharbin Oblast (Chzhukhe)
- Krasnovostok Oblast (Krasnovostok)
- Mukden Oblast (Mukden)
- North Khingan Oblast (Khailaar)
- South Khingan Oblast (Korchin)
- Tsitsikar Oblast (Tsitsikar)
- Formerly named Leninkar
- Tszyamusy Oblast (Tszyamusy)
- Zhekhe Oblast (Zhekhe)
- Autonomous Republics
- Cities of National Importance