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Manchuria (In Frederick's Fields)

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Manchuria

The Greater Manchuria region

Manchuria is a region in the Eurasian Union, officially composed of five different subjects of the Union; an Affiliated State (Manchuria) a State of the Union (Korean Manchuria), an Autonomous City (Port Arthur) and two National Okrugs (Evenkia and Amurye). For a long time a barren region with extremely varying climates that prevented consistent farming and therefore with few inhabitants, almost entirely of the local nomadic Tungusic ethnic group, the arrival of Russia to the region and the rapid development and industrialisation of the region led to the establishment of Manchuria as an economically vital and extremely diverse region of the Eurasian Union.

Due to the fact that Manchuria contains six different nations, the region is extremely varied in all terms. Economically, politically, culturally and socially, the six nations differ; for instance, Port Arthur and Vladivostok, highly industrialised cities and Eurasia's main ports in the Pacific coast, are amongst Russia's largest, most economically active and culturally diverse regions, while the territory of Amurye is a tribal trust territory with only one major settlement and only a few hundred thousand inhabitants.

Borders

Despite the relatively uncontroversial issue that should be the borders of Manchuria, there is actually more than a few things that are argued in regards to administrative organisation in Manchuria. The single most important one to think about is the position of the Primorye Oblast'. While most of the territory of the Oblast is in territories in the Primorkaya Region, and it's considered as part of this by the Eurasian government, the capital and by far most populated city, as well as 85% of the Oblast's population, is located in Manchuria's geographical area. As the chief source of exports to America and Japan, Primorye is a net contributor of tax money to the Eurasian government, which means that the Manchu government officials would rather have it as part of Manchuria, contributing more directly with tax funds. However, the Eurasian government rejects this position, since Manchuria is also a net contributor to Eurasia's general budget, while the reservations in the rest of the Primorskaya Regions receive far more money than they gain, this means that Primorskaya being in a region with these makes tax delivery far more efficient than it would otherwise be.


Great Manchu Empire

Great Manchu State
Ambu Manju gurun
— Affiliated State of Eurasia
Timeline: In Frederick's Fields

OTL equivalent: Qing Empire
Flag of the Emperor of Manchukuo Emblem of the Emperor of Manchukuo
Flag CoA
ManchuriaInEurasiaIFF
The Manchu State (in dark green) in the Manchuria region (light green)
Anthem "Praise the Dragon Flag"
Capital Mukden
Largest city Ishangga
Other cities Harbin
Language
  official
 
Manchu, Mandarin Chinese, Russian
  others immigrant languages, Korean
Religion
  main
 
Buddhism
  others Orthodoxy
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Manchu
  others Han, Russian
Demonym Manchu
Government Constitutional Monarchy
Emperor Puqi
  royal house Aisingorov (Aisin Gioro)
Prime Minister Yuri Dalaminov (Dalamina Hala-i Yuri)
Population 18,610,000 
Currency Eurasian ruble (₽)
Time zone GMT +9
Abbreviations MC

Dominant, both in size and population, as well as in the level of autonomy it is granted by the Duma, amongst all other subjects of Eurasia in East Asia is the Great Manchu Empire (in Manchu, Ambu Manju gurun). The Empire is a remnant from the Qing Empire that controlled China between 1644 and 1900, after which, faced with internal civil war and Russian encroachment upon its borders, the Chinese government was forced to move to the City of Mukden, and eventually lost most of its independence, becoming a federal subject of the Eurasian Union. However, even then, Manchuria has retained much of its internal autonomy in regards to military, economy and cultural matters. The Parliament of Manchuria is fully devolved from Eurasian control (and is infamously undemocratic and uncooperative). In fact, Manchuria often has acted in ways deeply against the wishes of the central Eurasian parliament (most notably in committing active ethnic cleansing of its Chinese subjects between 1930 and 1965, something that is generally credited as the cause of the death of nearly a million ethnic Chinese). The Manchu government is currently a big deal more authoritarian than other governments, ruled by the descendants of the Aisin Gioro clan (today going by the mildly Russified name Aisingorov). 


History

The Great Manchu Empire was born after the end of the first stage of the Chinese Civil War, when, in 1913, the battered monarchist armies were forced to a negotiating table by allied Russian forces, which accorded an agreement with the Federalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek giving Russia the non-Han periphery of the nation in exchange for support in defeating the myriad of warlords that took over the rest of the country (especially the Boulangist, French-sided Guangdong Clique and the later Chinese Communist Party). While this was mildly successful, this resulted in Emperor Pu Yi being essentially forced to give up all his claims to any land outside Manchuria. 

Between 1910 and 1920, with Manchu independence being de facto recognised by both Eurasia and China and the monarchy struggling to maintain Chinese immigrants out of the nation, the Manchu nation began experiencing deep changes that would bring to birth the modern Manchu state. 

Government

Flag of Concordia Association

The flag of the Concordia Association (in Chinese), the dominant political force in the country

The unicameral Jakun Gusa (Eight Banners, after the original form of organisation in the Manchu people) acts as an advisory body to a Council of Ministers picked by the Emperor and approved by the Parliament. The government is controlled to a large degree by the monarchy and the military, which emphasise their power in the form of a civilian political party, the Concordia Association (named evoking cooperation between Chinese, Manchu, Mongol and Russian, after the ethnic cleansing period of the 1940s), a "Compassionate Conservative" party evoking its ideas from the One Nation Conservatives of the United Kingdom and allied to the Nationalist Party of Eurasia, with whom it sits in the National Duma.  While officially a multiparty democracy, the only other party that even comes close to contesting Concordia's rule over the Manchus is the centrist People's Party (which stands in Duma with the Green Mensheviks), which gathers support from the bourgeoisie and the intellectual elite, but has never gotten over 30% of the vote at a national election, and has never left its role as Official Opposition in the Jakun Gusa. Albeit the last election gave the People's best result at 29.7% of the suffrage (in comparison with Concordia's 50.3%), it is still a far cry away from seriously threatening Concordia's prospects.

The Manchu government has the right to its own constitution, its own armed forces, its own taxation policy, and free spending of the money it receives in any way it wishes. Education, healthcare and trade policies are decentralised, but are required to work by standards set by the Eurasian government (an issue of contention amongst many). The police force is fully devolved as well.

Demographics

Last census placed Manchuria's population at 21,561,724, and 2015 estimates place the Manchu population at 25,610,000. With 10.4% of Eurasia's total population, Manchuria has the greatest population of any federal subject. Of the population, 37% identify as Manchus; 13% as Mongolian; 10% as Korean, 23% as Han Chinese and 15% as Russian, an increase in the Manchu population (from 35% in 2005 and 33% in 2000). Linguistically, Manchurian is only spoken as a first language by only 30% of the population, with a further 30% natively speaking Chinese and the rest speaking their respective ethnic languages. This process of Sinicisation amongst the Manchu populace has been slowly reversing itself in the last 100 years, but a large proportion of the population remains Sinicised.

While the native Manchu population has grown quickly, they have not avoided massive cultural influence by other nationalities. The most obvious example is the rise of the Manchu surnames, in which, in less than 15 years, Sinicised Manchus adopted their Manchu clan names, just to Russify them, generally by adding the '-ov' sunfit at the end of the clan names, and shortening them into one word, something started by Emperor Pu Yi, who started signing his name in international documents as 'Pu Yi Asingorov' rather than the previous 'Aisin Gioro Pu Yi'.


Manchurian Korea

Manchu Korea
만주 한국
Manju Hangug

— State of the Union Eurasia
Timeline: In Frederick's Fields

OTL equivalent: Eastern Manchuria
Flag of Korea 1882 Emblem of Korea (Myomi Republic)
Flag CoA
KoreanManchuriaIFF
The Manchu State (in dark green) in the Manchuria region (light green)
Anthem "Praise the Dragon Flag"
Capital Baegdusan
Largest city Baegdusan
Other cities Tonghwa
Language
  official
 
Korean, Mandarin, Russian
  others immigrant languages, Manchu
Religion
  main
 
Buddhism
  others Orthodoxy
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Korean
  others Han, Manchu, Russian
Demonym Manchu-Korean
Government Parliamentary Republic
  legislature Joongchuwon
Governor Nahm Jin-sung
Leader of the Legislature Gyeong Tae-won (Saenuri)
Population 4,314,000 
Currency Eurasian ruble (₽)
Time zone GMT +9
Abbreviations MK

Manchurian Korea (Korean: 만주 한국, or alternatively Manju Hangug) is the second largest territory administered as part of Manchuria (although the position in regards to population is a somewhat controversial affair depending on the consideration of whether Primorye is part of Manchuria or not. Korea is the largest industrial base in the Manchu region of Eurasia, with the highest GDP per capita out of any Eurasian administrative division east of the Lena River. As a State of the Union, Korea retains widespread devolved powers, although they are significantly less than those of the Empire of Manchuria. 


History

While Korean habitation comes from the time of the Kingdom of Goryeo in northern Korea several centuries before, but, after the solidification of Korean territories, there was near to no territorial autonomy of the Korean population. However, after 1900, with the annexation of the Great Manchu Empire by the Russian Empire, this was set to change. After the Autumn Revolutions gave rise to the current form of the Eurasian Union, in 1921, one of the first territorial changes established was the creation of Manchu Korea, a territory for the Hamyong Koreans in the nation. Soon enough,

Politics and Government

KoreanManchuriaParliamentIFF

The Joongchuwon of Korea.

Unlike their ultra-nationalistic Manchu neighbours to the north and the deeply conservative Korean society to the south, the people of Manchu Korea lean well to the left in most of their ideologies. The chief party in government is the Saenuri Party (New Frontier Party in English) which, unlike the party that shares its name in the Korean Empire, is a leftist governing coalition with close ties to the Green Mensheviks, and stands with them in the Eurasian Parliament. Currently, as it has been for every successive government in Manchu-Korean history since the infamous 1976 wipeout of the left in government, the Saenuri Party is in sole government with a majority of the seats, in a supply and confidence agreement with the smaller Communist and Progressive-Socialist Parties of Korea, while the Official Opposition is composed of the National Liberals, which seat with the Progressives in the Eurasian Parliament. 

Manchu Korea has the right to a separate constitution, a separate state legislature, partial fiscal autonomy (setting of some taxes and deciding its own regional budgets), social legislation depending on its own legislature, setting its own laws that do not contrast with the general laws of the Eurasian Union, and full cultural decision. While these rights exist throughout the board in the Eurasian Union, they're of special controversy in Manchu Korea, because, due to its leftist nature and the rightist nature of Manchuria itself, it is a source of a lot of things that are illegal close to the border. Due to the proximity and short traveling times between Mukden and  Baegdusan, Manchu Korea is a famous place of tourism for many Manchus. Amongst the most common and controversial forms of tourism, the government has been known to fight with Manchuria over sexual tourism (prostitution is legal in Korean Manchuria in legislated brothels), drug tourism (there's high degrees of legalisation), marriage tourism (homosexual marriage is permitted, and there are far less restrictions on marriage and divorce), and several others. This point of contention has led to Manchuria to tighten its border with Korea more than once, only to be forced to roll them back after open complaint by the government of Korean Manchuria and its contacts and allies amongst the political left, Primorye and Siberia, given that the region is landlocked and is a major source of industrial production.


Economy

Korean Manchuria is a heavily urbanised society (94% of the population lives in an urban area) with a primarily industrial-based economy. Most famous amongst Korean production are steel and pharmaceutical industries.

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