Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (Swedish: Republiken Mali), was a landlocked country in West Africa that existed from 1960 to 2016. Before Invasion of Africa in 2016, Mali covers an area of 855,192 square kilometres (330,000 sq mi) and a population of 13.4 million people (as of 2009) with its capital city was Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.
In early 1959, Swedish Sudan (which changed its name to the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation and gained independence from Shugarhai Union on 20 June 1960. Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to become the independent Republic of Mali on 22 September 1960. Modibo Keïta was elected the first president. Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources. On 19 November 1968, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré. The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. Mali involved into 1986 Arab-Moroccan War on side among with Arab League against Morocco, but it was lost and ceded a small part of area to Morocco. With Mauritania ceded its northern part to Morocco because heavily economic loses in recent 1986 war, Mali takes order to annex rest of Mauritania. In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali. Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution. During this time strict programs, imposed to satisfy demands of the International Monetary Fund, brought increased hardship upon the country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly lived in growing wealth. From 22 March through 26 March 1991, mass pro-democracy rallies and a nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which became known as the March Revolution. After the March Revolution, the overthrowing of the long period of one-party rule led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Significant portions of its legislation is derived from sharia law.
In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared to became part of Morocco as the Tuareg State. The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A week later, Tuareg rebels has won the war with Morocco's aid and the former northern part of Mali became part of Morocco. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013. In January 2016 during CNE Invasion of Africa, Mali was one of first democratic African states to be invaded by a CNE nation. On 1 February 2016, Mali quickly overrun and occupied by Moroccan forces, which, according to CNE's plans for Africa 2017, the entire Mali would became part of the Mande Federation, the future CSE member state that contains south-western part of West Africa UN subregion.