Alternate History

Major Legislation (An Independent in 2000)

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Naturally with the election of a president as different as Charles Malcolm Edwards, radically different policies and legislation would be implemented. The following is a list of the most important pieces of legislation passed under President Charles Malcolm Edwards.

Right Track

The Edwards administration's education plan was one of the staple features of the 2000 campaign. Unlike Governor Bush's No Child Left Behind Act, Edwards's was based around the European model for education. Specifically the Plan allocated billions for the creation of new Charter Schools and greater student tracking. This effectively gave any student the right to transfer to a charter school at any time they feel that they have an interest in a specific subject of field. This plan ultimately resulted in the US staying on par with Korea, Germany, Japan, and China in the creation of scientists and engineers and greatly encouraged the arts, unlike OTL. The plan was replaced by the Universal Education Act in 2007, when the Asteroid was captured.

Nano Act

The Edwards administration's economic plan also included an act to improve technology. By the time the act was passed, United States rose into levels of technology in health, economy, security, etc. Robots began doing some tough jobs not even humans can accomplish. New construction methods sped up construction. New medicines help cure many deadly diseases. It even played a role in the America's space program, in which new rocket technology pushed the discovery of space to new limits. Renewable fuels were used to reduce the Co2 emissions in order to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. By the time Obama was president, some of the most bizzare technology was invented in America and became #1 in high technology.

Energy Independence and Security Act

Brought on immediately after the source of funding for al Qaeda and other Islamic terrorist groups was discovered to be linked directly to Saudi Arabian Oil revenues, EISA effectively raised the CAFE standards to 45 mpg for all vehicles in the US. EISA also encourgaed American energy and fuel companies to switch to renewable energy sources and other energy-efficent methods. This increase in standards completely removed America's dependacy on foreign oil.

The act also will increase security in airports, borderlines, and all kinds of targets terrorists can reach. Also, companies are encouraged to invent new security methods and devices that will target terrorists and other similar terrorist attacks like 9/11..

2003 Immigration Reform Act

Pardons all illegal immigrants and defines them as US Citizens. The bill also makes it easier to gain US Citizenship, but requires much stricter proof of citizenship tests for federal programs. After this act was passed, a project was approved to be built on the Mexican-American border to prevent illegal immigration from Mexico. Other security systems were made to catch all illegal immigrants.

Military Reform Act

Launches an investigation of the US military and stops all contracts that are deemed to be providing soldiers with inadequate equipment. The act was mainly directed at lightening the US military into a much more agile force that could respond to brushfire warfare and counterterrorism quickly, and if need be, quietly. The act provides for a rerouting of US Military funding to better armor, weapons, and healthcare funds. The act is what ultimately killed the Future Warrior program and allocated those funds to simpler and much more effective weapons, such as the M-8 Electronically Fired Assault Rifle, and the Mithril Body Armor. The act also poses strict laws on soldiers in order to limit bloodshed and often avoild civilian targets.

28th Amendment

The Balanced Budget Amendment was passed in 2002 to ensure that once the War on Terror ended, the Federal Budget could be brought under control. The Amendment establishes that only during a time of war declared by congress, or a time of significant economic collapse to be defined by Congress may deficit spending occur; at all other times, Congress and the states must not spend more than they make.

War on Drugs Repeal

During the height of the Millennium Economic Crisis in 2003 the Edwards Administration announced that it would cut funding for the War on Drugs, and asked Congress to lower the punishment for Marijuana related crimes. The bill passed only hesitantly, and crime in the US actually went down.

Second Bill of Rights

First Proposed in 1944 by President Roosevelt, the Second Bill of Rights was proposed again by President Edwards during the end of his administration. Edwards outlined what such a series of Amendments should contain, building on those rights outlined by President Roosevelt. President Obama campaigned on the creation of the Second Bill of Rights, and communicated with President Edwards during the campaign on the details of it. Upon entering office President Obama began actively perusing the Second Bill of Rights and is set to sign it into law by the end of 2009.

29th Amendment

Known Freedom of Marriage Amendment; this piece of legislation would effectively bar Congress or any branch of Government, federal, state, and local, from making laws that discriminate against gay and transexual couples from engaging in Civil Unions, and defines Marriage as a religious institution. This piece of the Second Bill of Rights has been met with extreme opposition among the Christian Right, and only luke warm approval from the Independents.

30th Amendment

Known as Right to Choose Amendment; this part of the SBR would make a woman's right to have an Abortion federal law, effectively solidifying Roe v. Wade. The bill has been met with extreme scrutiny and its cosigners are currently meeting with doctors and scientists to define when the cut off date should be for abortions. So far, "at the doctor's discretion," is the preferred language, though defining five months as the cut off date with the exceptions provided for the health of the mother is also being considered.

31st Amendment

"The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries or shops or farms or mines of the nation." This is the first Amendment of the original Second Bill of Rights proposed by Roosevelt in 1944. The 31st Amendment creates a US Jobs Corps that requires that ever person who wants a job is given one. This is to be accomplished by giving people with little to no skills menial labor employment, and gives those with marketable skills employment on government public works programs or finding them work within either the private or non-profit sectors. The language of the legislation is designed to make employee freedom the highest priority.

32nd Amendment

"The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation;" Gives the government the authority to create a national minimum wage standard, and bars any employer from forcing employees to work for less or for longer hours without additional benefits.

33rd Amendment

"The right of every businessman, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad;" This amendment placed much more strict regulations on unfair business practices from domestic and foreign corporations.

34th Amendment

"The right of every family to a decent home;" Finds every person in the country a place to live should they not have one, and provides them low income residence should they not be able to afford a home.

35th Amendment

"The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health;" Effectively makes Free and Universal Health Care a Fundamental right as a US Citizen. The legislation is heavily modeled after HR 676 and the British NHS, and solidifies social security as a Constitutional Right. People would still have the right to opt for private insurance, but basic coverage would be a right of birth.

36th Amendment

"The right to a good education." Effectively makes free and Universal Education a constitutional right up to undergraduate college.

37th Amendment

Abolishes Electoral College.

38th Amendment

Abolishes 16th Amendment. (No income tax.)

39th Amendment

"To control all alcohol", this new law says to increase security in nightclubs, place policemen in every bar, and workers must give people a limited amount of alcohol. If a person gets drunk, policemen were help deal with it. There was some resistant to the new law, but many people see this as "helpful", so that drunkness in the United States would decline.

40th Amendment

Abolishes the ban of High Fructose Syrup. Since the calories of corn were lowered thanks to genetic engineering, high fructose syrup has less calories than it had as well. Soon, fast food was much more healthier though the government stiil urges people to eat healthy foods.

Civilization Acts

Considered by many the largest expansion of the US federal government in American history, the Civilization acts are also considered the largest decrease in government as well. The Civilization Acts were announced by President Edwards almost immediately after the mineral value of 433 Eros was confirmed. With the largest surplus in the history of any nation, the US government has been able to spend billions on projects that would previously been ignored. The key tenets of the Civilization Acts are as follows:

Space Development Act

The first of the Civilization Acts, this piece of legislation allocated 1.25 trillion dollars to NASA and various private space contractors to stimulate the rapid development of space. The SpaceDev Act has been chiefly used to increase the size of NASAs shuttle fleet, and fund the construction of large scale, permanent stations on asteroids being harvested for minerals. Because of the SpaceDev Act, NASA has successfully captured and is currently mining ten Near Earth Objects with the aid of private contractors. The plan also accelerates the development of the Planetary Exploration Vehicle, create a sustainable network of bases on the Moon and gives large subsidies to private space flight firms. The rare, valuable minerals from the asteroids increased the wealth of the United States, though a fraction of it US donates to the UN programs.

Nature Preservation Act

One of the most important Civilization Acts and also to the world as well, this piece of legislation will help and protect American natural parks and nature reserves. At least $5 trillion will be used to help maintain all national parks and help support the growing tourism. The UN and several other environmental organizations support this act because it will help protect American wildlife and the money they make will play a part in the economy. Other projects will try to cease pollution from CO2 emmisions, which has cause climate change in every reserve.

Green Act

As one of the most important of the Civilization Acts, the new law encourages new projects that will make US and the rest of the world more environment friendly by using more renewable energy sources, bioproducts, and build projects that will support the Green Act. UN supports the new law as it's becoming a new step for the rest of the world to follow America's biotech road.

2006 Moratorium on Taxes

Considered the most popular piece of legislation during the Edwards Presidency, the 2006 Moratorium on Taxes ended all taxes in the US, abolished the IRS and reconfigured the Federal Reserve as an institution to manage the wealth gained from the Asteroids. Treasury Secretary Paul was sitting beside the President during its signing. The bill was passed with only three senators and five congressmen (Most notably Dennis Kusinich) who refused to sign the bill; all three lost their re-elections. However, the only time this act will be reversed if the economy goes into a crisis. This is rare, however, since the wealth from the Asteroids keep on coming.

Infrastructure Renewal Act of 2006

As the largest piece of infrastructure spending in American History, the Infrastructure Renewal Act of 2006 has allocated over $10 trillion to the building of new roads and bridges all over America. The bill allocates $800 billion for mag-lev rail lines, $1 trillion for subways and monorails, another trillion to replace every landfill in America with a Plasma Gasification plant by 2012, $5 trillion for roads bridges, and highways, most notably the Bering Strait Bridge, $1 Trillion for air and space ports, with all additional funds dedicated to a new smart energy infrastructure. While there have been changes in completion dates due to the expansion of the US in 2007, major projects include:

  • Bering Strait Bridge: Working with Russian Government to bridge the Bering Strait with an eight lane highway, four MagLev rail lines (two for freight, two for passengers), and several oil and natural gas lines within a single superstructure, set to be completed in 2019)
  • US MagLev Rail Network: Will link every major city in the continental United States together with a Magnetic Levitation Rail network, set to be completed in 2015.
  • US Fiber Optic Network: Will connect the country with a series of fiber optic lines allowing for the implementation of light speed communications (set to be completed in 2010).
  • New Panama Canal: Intended to be completed with the Panamanian government (prior to annexation) to create a Panama Canal so large that one Locks would be able to hold three current Panama size Supertankers, set to be completed in 2018.
  • New Concrete: Will begin to use bendable concrete that is more tougher, lighter, and stronger than traditional concrete. It will be used for new roads, bridges, buildings, etc. Other nations will use this new type of concrete too.
  • US Repair and Build Project: Will repair and build US infrastructure nationwide, and will also invent new, stronger building materials, new construction and repairing methods, and help "raise the grades on the American Infrastructure Report Card". The project is improving on aviation, bridges, dams, drinking water, energy, getting rid of hazardous waste, inland waterways, levees, public parks and recreation, railroads, roads, schools, remove solid waste, transit, and clean wastewater. (will be a continuous project)
  • US City Development Project: Will donate close to a trillion dollars for major City projects such as new skyscrapers, public WiMax, water treatment, and waste management programs. It will also apply to rid many cities of poverty and build new infrastructure and housing. This program will also apply to New York's effort to build its 2001 meter tall, "Freedom Tower", a 9/11 memorial and muesuem, a Performing Arts Center, Transportation Hub, and other new skyscrapers to replace the WTC buildings. ( will be a continuous project)

American Energy Independence Act

Along with allocating trillions to renewable energy technology development, this bill is designed to maker every building in America energy independent by 2020, the American Energy Independence Act states that every American who buys a vehicle that only runs on renewable energy sources, will be given a subsidy to make their home energy independent. The bill also provides for similar funds for companies who plan to retrofit or build new buildings that will be energy independent. Major research projects are as follows:

  • ITER (2014): The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, being built on top of the old Hanford Site in the state of Lincoln, would be the worlds most ambitious Fusion research project.
  • Lake Michigan Wind Farm (2012): Set to give Chicago wind energy sources and make Chicago energy independent.
  • The Farm Poop Project (2011): Set to gain methane from all domestic farm animal dung to convert them to energy by building projects around farms that will convert dung methane tp energy. The poop then will be used as fertilizer.
  • The Billion Rooves Project (2012): Set to give every building in the US a thin film solar power source.

Water Security Act of 2007

This act sends over two trillion dollars to rebuild the US water infrastructure and construct numerous desalination and purification plants all across America with the intent of providing free, clean water to everyone in America. Currently the largest desalination plants are being built in Los Angeles, New York, Boston, Mexico City, Toronto, Ottowa, and Houston.

The State Reorganization Act

Following the cession of the Latin and Canadian states, it became very obvious that there was an unfair distribution of power between the new territories. A debate arose over how to carve up the new regions into states. Some suggested simply making Mexico its own state and keeping the Canadian Provinces the same. This proposal was quickly shot down, as Mexico would become the most powerful state in the union by all standards. It was clear that the lines of all states had to be redrawn to better distribute representation among the population. The State Reorganization Act was ultimately proposed by Puerto Rican Congresswoman Jennifer González as a solution that would create an committee that would meet with legislators and governors from each state and new territory to discuss the redrawing of the map, and solidify the new maps with the majority vote of the citizens of each county, of the proposed region. By October 2008 the states had been completely redrawn.

American Economic Growth and Reinvestment Plan

Designed to facilitate economic growth on a national level the plan allocates trillions towards promoting the same growth started by President Edwards within the new US States, and retooling their manufacturing capacity to make higher quality goods. The bill also provides an increase in funding towards vertical farms and updating American Infrastructure. The plan builds on the Civilization Acts and the State Reorganization Act to spread the projects originally directed when the US consisted on only 50 states to the new territory in Mexico and Canada.

Global Aid Act

Directs trillions to a number of foreign aid projects in developing nations. Many of these projects are starting in nations where US military bases will be removed in order to prevent an economic vacuum in said areas. These projects are intended to make a major push for accomplishing the UN Millennium goals, despite its major oppostion by Islamic terrorists, Somalian pirates and warchiefs, and other anti-US and anti-UN groups. These projects include the following.

  • Project Purity (2015): Directs funds to ensure that every nation has access to clean drinking water.
  • Project Plenty (2015): Directs funds toward ending hunger in the world.
  • Project Hope (2015): Directs funds towards ending death by preventable diseases through the construction of hospitals, the training of doctors and other medical professionals.
  • Global Highway Fund (2019): Directs funds toward the creation of a "Global Highway." A network of roads, maglev rails, and communication lines all along a single piece of infrastructure.
  • The Teacher's Project (2015): Insure everyone access to primary education through the construction of schools and the training of teachers.

Lobbying Reform Act of 2009

Considered the most comprehensive piece of anti-lobbyist legislation in history, the Lobbying Reform Act of 2009 explicitly bans any and all gifts, contributions, or benefits given to Congressman by business representatives or lobbyists. The legislation has been met with strong opposition by Populists and Libertarians, but is expected to pass with support from independents.

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