Origins and expansion
The Majmi state formed in the late 16th century as the family, a branch of the Beni Anizzah, conquered and subjugated neighbouring clans and tribes of central Arabia. By 1630 it had driven Abyssinia out of Yemen, and two years later it took Mecca and Medina to complete the conquest of the Arabian peninsula.
In the 1640s the Majmis first began attacking Romania, which had been badly weakened by the recent loss of Italy and Africa and the ongoing uprisings in Hungary and the northern Balkans. Although they had no reinforcements available, the Syrian border garrisons were among the strongest in the Roman Empire and were able to successfully retaliate against every raid. In 1659, however, the Majmis managed to lure out most of the Army of Syria from its forts, and then proceeded to wipe it out at the Battle of Khabur.
This catastrophic and unexpected defeat instantly sent Roman Syria into a panic, and the Majmis were able to conquer it piece by piece over the next few years. Antioch itself was besieged and taken in 1667, and Emperor Constantine XVI Melissenos was captured trying to flee from the battle.
This formed the basis of the Majmi claims to the Caliphship, as later rulers claimed that Constantine had surrendered the title to Muhammad ibn Majm in an attempt to save his own life. However, this was not acknowledged by the international community, who continued to recognise Constantine and his successors as Caliphs.
The Majmis failed to advance beyond Syria. By taking Antioch and acquiring part of the Mediterranean coast, however, they had demonstrated to the outside world that they were a force to be taken seriously.