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Lycia was a state in Asia Minor. Its was bordered by Turkey. Created after World War I by the Treaty of Lucerne as an independent state under the protection of Italy, making it a satellite state of Italy.
Lycia was Recognized and had diplomatic relations with France, Italy, Greece, UK and Austria-Hungary. The Turkish republic never recognized its status of an independent state and reclaimed it as part of its territory.
The 1923 Fascist triumph in Italy had its effects in Lycia. The main one was the process of establishing an Fascist government and the control of all State and civil organizations.
Lycia was a parliamentary republic. Its constitution is based on the Italian and French ones. According to it the republic is organized as follows:
- The Head of State was the President of Republic, elected by a joint session of National Assembly for a mandate of five years. He names the President of the Council of Ministers, that acted as the Head of Government.
- The legislative power rested in the National Assembly, a bicameral body that consisted of a Senate (with a mandate of nine years, elected by an electoral college in thirds every three years) and Chamber of Deputies (elected for a mandate of four years or less if dissolved for new elections). In 1924 the National Assembly was replaced by the National Chamber of Corporations and its councilors elected by the different branches of the trade and industry of Lycia.
- The judicature is organized in the Court of Cassation (supreme court over civil and criminal courts) and the Council of State (supreme court over administrative courts)
All men over 21 years can vote in all elections and referenda.
The Italian High Commissioner (Alto Commissario) for Lycia is in charge of public order and as a role similar to a proconsul in all public and state affairs. The High Commissar is named by the Italian Prime Minister and is subordinated to the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Lycia was divided in sanjaks (district), kaza (canton), municipalities of district centers (belediye), and karye (village). Muhtars and their village councils (Azalar) are elected during local elections for five-year terms. All district centers have municipalities (belediye), headed by an elected mayor, who administers a defined municipality area (usually matching the urban zone) for defined municipal matters.
The political parties in Lycia were divided on those with official sponsorship and the Turkish nationalist parties. Of the former the main ones were the National List, Liberal Union of Lycia, United Democrats (a Christian Democracy party), Lycian Socialist Party. The Turkish nationalist organized themselves in the Turkish People's Party, informally organized and funded by the Turkish Republican People's Party.
In 1923, having the Italian Fascist won the government, all pro-Italian political parties of Lycia were encouraged to joint the National Fascist Bloc, that became the sole legal party. For the Turks a branch, the National Turkish Association, was created.
Upon the creation of Lycia and installation of a government, the economies of Lycia and Italy were linked through a customs union that removed most of the trade restrictions between the two nations.
Through a tariff union, the Italian tariff system was put in place in Lycia. Due to the expected economic losses in Albania from the alteration in tariff policy, the Italian government provided Lycian 5 million Lycian staters each year in compensation.
Italian customs laws were to apply in Lycia and only Italy alone could conclude treaties with third parties. Italian capital was allowed to dominate the Lycian economy. As a result, Italian companies were allowed to hold monopolies in the exploitation of Lycian natural resources.
Agriculture, which employed over 80% of the working force, was the main sector of the economy and contribute to the formation of over 90% of national income in that time, while the cultivated lands main products were only to produce wheat, corn and rye. Earth work with primitive tools dominance of wood plows, fertilizers hardly known at all. The level of productivity and level of organization and mechanization of agriculture in this period were very low.
Other states created by the Treaty of Lucerne: