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Alternate History

Loyal Italy

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Point of Dispersion

Italy declares war on France in 1914 during World War I, after signing the Treaty of Berlin, where Germany promises them colonies in addition to Corsica and some Southeastern French land.

Timeline

1914

  • Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke Franz Ferdinand, causing World War I to begin
  • Several nations declare war on each other, including Italy joining on the side of the Central Powers
  • Fighting begins on the Western front with Britain and France defending against Italy and Germany, in addition to the Eastern Front where Austria-Hungary and Germany fight Russia.

1915

  • The RMS Lusitania is sunk, causing American opinion of Germany to be negative.
  • The Ottoman Empire carries out a mass genocide of Armenians.

1916

  • France tries to take Verdun, but fails. Germany begins a counterattack.
  • France calls for an armistice. Then Russia calls for an armistice. Then Britain calls for an armistice.
  • Peace talks occur in Berlin. France signs the Treaty of Bellevue. Russia signs the Treaty of Charlottenburg. Britain signs the Treaty of Potsdam.
  • Charles E. Hughes becomes President of the United States after defeating wartime President Woodrow Wilson.

1917

  • Though the main allies are out of the war, the war in the Balkans continues and even hightens as Greece and Albania declare war on Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, turning into the Third Balkan War.
  • The Russian Revolution occurs, as protests and demonstrations occur in Petrograd, and Nicholas II abdicates. 
  • A new constitution is signed in Russia, which installs a parliamentary government, and Alexander Kerensky is installed as the first President of Russia.

1918

  • Italy annexes Albania.

1919

  • Serbia surrenders and is divided among Italy, Bulgaria, and Austria-Hungary, thus ending the Third Balkan War.
  • Prohibition is ratified in the United States.

1920

  • Charles E. Hughes wins re-election over William Gibbs McAdoo.
  • The 20th amendment, giving women's suffrage, is passed.
  • The Ottoman-Arab War begins as the Hashemites, Saudis, and Rashidis unite to fight the Ottomans.
  • Berlin hosts the 1920 Summer Olympics which they had been scheduled to host in 1916.

1921

  • Polish people begin a massive uprising against the German government. The rebels were being secretly funded by the Russian government, who wanted to create disorder in Germany in order to cause Germany to lose power, and possibly regain control of Poland.
  • Germany puts down the revolts in the western parts of the ethnically polish land through use of extreme force, especially through mass executions carried out in Lodz, the burning of Sandomierz, and the public execution of Josef Pilsudski, a Polish leader.

1922

  • Several socialist and centre-left political parties in Germany form a coalition in the Reichstag.
  • After the Saudis and Hashemites make an agreement to divide up land from the Ottomans, they successfully defeat the Rashidis and divide their winnings.

1923

  • The German Revolution occurs when the Kaiser abdicates, and the United Democratic Party asserts its power over Communists and monarchists.
  • Italy, following several border disputes with Austria-Hungary, declares war, hoping to gain land, beginning the Italo-Austrian War

1924

  • Germany signs a new constitution, which renames the German Reich to become the "Republic of Germany". It also establishes a parliamentary system, but with the Chancellor directly elected, and both the votes of parliament and the Chancellor being required for a law to pass (imagine if the US had one house). It also gives women and Poles the right to vote.
  • Germany holds its first election for Chancellor and a new parliamentary election. Otto Wels is elected Chancellor and his United Democratic Party gains a plurality in the Reichstag.
  • A vote in France determines that it will not send pay reparations to Germany, and only to Italy. The United Kingdom votes to continue to pay its required reparations to Germany.
  • Republican Progressive Hiram Johnson is voted as President in the US, as progressivism and isolationalism continue to grow in the US.
  • After losing the Battle of Klagenfurt, Austria sues for peace with Italy. They then sign the Treaty of Innsbruck.
  • The 1924 Summer Olympics is hosted by Amsterdam. St. Moritz in Switzerland hosts the first Winter Olympics.

1925

  • Germany sends forces into Alsace and Lorraine in order to threaten France for refusing to pay reparations. They also place sanctions on France, and the Ottoman Empire places a huge fine on French ships hoping to use the Suez, furthering the French economic crisis.
  • Germany and France agree to the Frankfurt Pact, in which Germany agrees to demobilize France and end sanctions on it, in addition to lending France the money it would need to pay the reparations, and France would pledge to make its payments yearly and allow Germany to re-mobilize should France not make a payment.
  • A rebellion occurs in Georgia hoping for independence from Russia, but it is successfully put down by the Russian government, allowing them to legitimize their power.
  • The scopes monkey trial occurs in the US.

1926

  • France begins to see large inflation as a result of having left the gold standard in the Great War and the requirement to pay reparations to Italy and Germany, in addition to the money loaned to them by Germany and the six months of German embargo on France.
  • With the Action Francaise remaining a powerful French far-right political group, the pope condemns them due to their growing influence over Catholics and the agnostic leadership of Charles Maurras.
  • Hirohito becomes the Emperor of Japan after Taisho dies.

1927

  • Germany and Russia agree to an alliance. Ukraine, which had been torn between whether to fall under German or Russian influence, agrees to an alliance with both, and this the beginning of the Allies of WWII.
  • After monarchist Leon Dauet is sent to jail, Charles Maurras forms the Parti Nationaliste Populaire (also known as the PNP or Popular Nationalist Party). 
  • Otto Wels is re-elected, but the Centrist Party gains in the Reichstag.
  • Emperor Charles of Austria-Hungary is shot by Serbian terrorists. This causes Serbia to declare independence. Austria-Hungary, now a very weak government following ethnic tensions, economic crisis, and a loss to Italy, eventually agrees to dissolve.

1928

  • France, hit hard by what becomes hyperinflation, is unable to make its yearly payment to Germany. Germany remobilizes to Alsace-Lorraine, but France has no answer. 
  • In French elections, Charles Maurras becomes Prime Minister after the victory of his Popular Nationalist Party in the elections. 
  • Maurras implements new laws as Prime Minister, including abolishment of several parties, discrimination against Jews and communists, military growth, refusal to pay reparations, secret extra military production of banned or restricted equipment (by the Treaty of Bellevue), investment into an air force, and isolationism from Germany.
  • Adolf Hitler attempts a coup, but fails, and is put in jail for five years.
  • Pietro Nenni is elected as Prime Minister of Italy. 
  • Hiram Johnson is re-elected for President over Cordell Hull.
  • Los Angeles hosts the 1928 Summer Olympics. Lake Placid hosts the Winter Olympics.

1929

  • Charles Maurras establishes a secret police, called the Force de Securite, headed by Andre Tulard. Furthermore, propaganda is spread widely, All leftist political parties are outlawed. Also, the French senate elects Maurras President in addition to being Prime Minister, thus merging the two positions.
  • Viktor Chernov is elected President of Russia.
  • British Member of Parliament Oswald Mosley forms the United British Nationalist Party, mirroring much of Charles Maurras' policies and receiving funding from the French government.

1930

  • Italy agrees to an alliance with Germany, meaning that Italy, Russia, Ukraine, and Germany are all part of the same alliance.
  • A major speculative crash occurs in the New York Stock Exchange, causing the Great Depression in the United States. It also causes bank failures worldwide, particularly in the United Kingdom and Canada where the US was such a strong trading partner.
  • France start it's 'revitalizing' program which involves a massive push to connect the country with a large railway and motorway system while rebuilding industry. It is an aggressive program leading to a general decrease in the standard of living due to shortages of food and luxuries as workers are drafted in and land taken over by the government.
  • Internal issues among warlords in China cause Japan to station troops in their concessions of Tsintao, Dalian, and Tianjin. When a warlord attacks near Tianjin, Japan moves its forces to Tianjin, including to parts not given to Japan. As a result, China sends troops to stop, and a small armed conflict occurs, raising tension between the two, in what is known as the Tianjin Crisis.
  • Argentina hosts the first FIFA World Cup.

1931

  • Japan invades Manchuria. 
  • Oswald Mosley, growing in popularity following the Great Depression and the success of Maurras, Marches on London with 20,000 armed members of his United British Nationalist Party. The party had already taken control of Coventry, and seemed prepared to take Birmingham if needed and possibly start a Civil War. As a result, King George V abdicates, and reaches an agreement with Mosley in which Mosley is appointed regent while a general election is held and supervised by Mosley and his henchmen. Mosley after banning several suspect parties wins a victory taking 450 seats in the house of commons.
  • Mosley begins to implement policies similar to those of Charles Maurras. Furthermore, he passes a law in which all members of the Lords Temporal are appointed by the Prime Minister, and may be fired by the Prime Minister, allowing him to appoint other party members to the House of Lords, and make the House of Lords indebted to him and completely controlled by him.
  • Mosley starts a program very similar to that of the French economic rebuilding plan.

1932

  • Mosley begins a propaganda machine in the United Kingdom, and continues to make laws to increase his power.
  • Mosley and Maurras meet in Jersey, where they agree to an alliance, expansion of Nationalism, expansion of their militaries, and refusal to pay reparations, in what becomes known as the Jersey Pact.
  • Japan conquers Manchuria, and renames it Manchukuo.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President, defeating John J. Blaine. He implements his New Deal policies.
  • Olympics are held in Rome.

1933

  • The Ottoman Empire, which still had control over the Suez Canal, declares neutrality in the situation in Europe, and that it would allow all vessels free access in the Suez.
  • Britain sends battleships and destroyers to the ports of Port Moresby and Mombasa due to their proximity to German New Guinea and German Tanganyika. As a result, Germany declares sanctions on the United Kingdom until the ships are removed. However, these sanctions are forced to stop due to the failing economy of Germany during the Great Depression.
  • Antonio Oliviera de Salazar succeeds in a coup in Portugal, creating the Estado Novo. With Portugal now becoming the third European country to fall to the nationalist ideals, Maurras, Mosley, and Salazar agree to hold the first Popular Nationalist Congress, or Ponaticon (similar to the Comintern). At the first convention, held in Paris, they agree to name their movement Popular Nationalism, and agree to spread the movement to other countries.

1934

  • Otto Wels is re-elected Chancellor of Germany, though Adolf Hitler's Popular Nationalist Party gains in the Reichstag. In fear of a possible takeover by the Popular Nationalists, Hitler is detained and the party is banned.
  • France, further testing the limits of the rest of Europe, invades Andorra, and annexes it after defeating it.
  • Leon Degrelle and Jean Denis receive funding from France to lead a military coup in Belgium in exchange for funding, asylum if the coup fails, military support if a civil war ensues, and in return would guarantee collaboration with France and favor French language over Dutch. 

1935

  • Degrelle and Denis lead a Rexist rebellion in Belgium, which causes King Leopold III to abdicate and flee to the Netherlands. The coup is successful, and Degrelle procaims himself Regent of Belgium, though Denis, the Prime Minister and head of government, is the chief ideologue in Belgium. Degrelle agrees to an alliance with France.
  • A rebellion occurs in Morocco in favor of independence from Germany. As a result, Charles Maurras sends Jean Ousset, at the time serving as a foreign minister. He also sends multiple warships, all to the port of Kenitra. What results is the Kenitra Crisis, which results in further tensions between Germany and France.
  • France and Germany agree to the Lyon Agreement in which France withdraws from Germany and agrees not to make any further territorial expansions, but in exchange, Germany recognizes French control of Andorra and agrees to end their request for reparations.

1936

  • The 1936 Olympics are held in London, where they are used mainly for propaganda.
  • A coup occurs in Spain, where it fails to take control of the whole country, leading to the Spanish Civil War. However, France and Britain fund Francisco Franco and bomb targets within Spain. This becomes a major proxy war between the Popular Nationalist countries and the Social Democratic countries.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt is re-elected.

1937

  • France invades and annexes Luxembourg. 
  • Kurt Schumacher is elected chancellor of Germany following the death of Otto Wels. 
  • Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, and Japan sign the Lisbon Alliance, an alliance including all six countries, and would form the Axis Powers (which was originally in reference to the axis between London and Paris).

1938

  • In November, 1938, a revolt occurs in Flanders when it declares independence, which is funded by the German government, and Germany provides troops. A Civil War begins in Belgium, and in February, Belgium asks France to become fully annexed so that France is obligated to protect the Rexist government. 
  • Franco wins the Spanish Civil War.

1939

  • When France annexes Belgium, Germany declares war on France.
  • Spain, Portugal, and Britain declare war on Germany. Russia, Ukraine, Netherlands, and Italy declare war on the Axis. Japan declares war on China and Russia. World War II begins.
  • In Russian elections for wartime President of Russia, Vladimir Zenzinov is elected President after winning the nomination from the Socialist-Revolutionary Party and defeating Kadet candidate Pavel Milyukov and Absolutist Alexander Kolchak. Milyukov would lead the opposition until his death, while Kolchak would lead the Russian navy.

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