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Louis Joseph Anton Johann, Duke of Hungary (13 December 1784 – 21 December 1864) was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and the brother of Francis I of Austria, and was the final true Hapsburg duke in Europe, assuming control of Napoleon's Duchy of Hungary in 1820 after his nephew was abdicated following the duchy's annexation by the French Empire and ruling it until 1856, when he retired to Vienna. While Louis was initially one of Napoleon's fiercest critics, he eventually came to form an amicable relationship with his nephew-in-law and helped Napoleon institute his pan-Imperialist policies in Hungary and was instrumental in whipping Austrian nobles into shape during the Austrian purges of 1817-19 and in better assisting the integration of Hungary into Napoleon's French Empire, and he supported Louis I with his armies during the War of Napoleonic Succession. In Hungary, he is often regarded as a local hero.