Louis I
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex by Guy Head.jpg
Portrait by Jacques-Louis David, 1802
King of Louisiana
Reign November 16, 1799 –
May 23, 1832
Coronation May 11, 1800
Predecessor Pierre II
Successor Louis II
Spouse Louise of Hesse (m. 1795, d. 1811)
Issue Louis II
Prince Maximilien
Princess Marie
Prince Pierre
Full name
Pierre Louis Guillaume Frédéric
House House of Vaudreuil
Father Pierre II
Mother Louisa Augusta Greville
Born March 19, 1777
New Orleans, Kingdom of Louisiana
Died May 23, 1832 (aged 55)
Grand-Palais Royal, New Orleans

Burial November 1, 1832
St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans
Religion Roman Catholic

Louis I (Pierre Louis Guillaume Frédéric; March 19, 1777 – May 23, 1832) was King of Louisiana from November 16, 1799 until his death in 1832. Unlike his predecessors Louis was the first Louisianan king to have been born and raised in Louisiana, and never personally visited France or any of her colonies.

His life and reign, which were longer than any monarch before him and is still one of the longest reigns in Louisianan history (33 years, 2 months, and 4 days) were infamous for his multiple human right abuses, the destruction of Parlement, and the Second Spanish-Louisianan War. His reign saw Louisiana go from a semi-constitutional monarchy with a Parlement and Cabinet to an absolute monarchy reminiscent of an authoritarian dictatorship. Due to this, multiple revolts and attempts to overthrow his government occurred during his reign, and all were viciously crushed by his elite military force led by Joseph Hugh d'Schon, one of Louisiana's most prominent generals.

By the end of his reign in 1832, Louisiana's government was despised by pro-democratic countries in the Western world, the economy was at its lowest point in history, and the country was on the brink of war with the United States, leading to Louis being known as one of the worst monarchs in Louisianan history.

Early life

Louis was born in the Governor's House in southern New Orleans on March 19, 1777. He was the only child of Pierre II (then known as Prince Pierre of Louisiana) and Louisa Augusta Greville, and the grandson of Pierre I. He was later publicly baptised by the Bishop of New Orleans, Arnaud de Relberry four days later on March 23.

Louis grew into a healthy, but reserved child. At the age of 7, he began his education with multiple private tutors in English, French, Latin, hunting, fencing, and basic math, science, and history. By the time he was 13 in 1790, he was proficient in horseback riding and fencing, which earned him multiple awards with his participation in many fencing tournaments throughout his adolescence. Once he turned 18 in 1795, he was made the Duke of Upper Louisiana by his father, which he held for the rest of his life.


In 1795, Louis married Louise of Hesse, the daughter of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse at St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans. The two met at their wedding, and were supposedly inseperable as a couple. The two birthed 4 children: 3 sons and a daughter.

Early reign