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|— City —|
|Sovereign state||Great Britain|
|Settled by Roman Empire||as Londinium,
c. 43 AD
|- Regional authority||Greater London Authority|
|- Regional assembly||London Assembly|
|- Mayor of London|
|- Parliament of the United Kingdom||74 constituencies|
Roman rule and Early History
The area around the current city is believed to have been first settled by Brythonic people hundreds of years before the common era. The first notable settlement was founded in 43 AD by the Roman Empire. Despite early attempts from the local Celts to push the Romans out of the area, (most notably an attack led by Queen Boudica) the city flourished and was soon pronounced the seat of Roman authority on the island. After the end of Roman rule in Britain during the fifth century, southern Britain was fractured into many kingdoms. All remaining loyal Roman soldiers fell back to the trade center of Londinium, rallying behind the Constantine , who remained in Britain. In 411 AD with all communication lost between Rome and Britain Constantine became the first king of Britannia, a small fledgling union around Londinium that upheld the Roman values.
Under his leadership, the small Roman garrison within the city was able to successfully hold back the Angles and Saxons who settled in East Anglia and central Britain. The city was declared the capital of the Kingdom of Britannia soon afterward.
In 470 AD Constantine II created the first British legislative branch, known as Parliament, modeled after the Roman senate within the city of Londinium. The group, comprising of mostly social elite and wealthy land owners serves as a council of advisers for future kings and manages daily procedure. Constantine II would greatly improve Londinium, increasing basic sanitation and living conditions. The forum is increased and other government facilities added. In 479 AD Constantine II would also commission the University of Londinium, a place of higher education that first began teaching military arts, engineering, and some forms of Roman Rhetoric and Philosophy. The building would be opened nine years later.
e year 700 the seventh king of Britannia, Constantine IV, invaded Dumnonia, beginning the First War of English Unification. Three years later the kingdoms of East Anglia and Middle Anglia were annexed by Britannia in union. Constantine adapted the Anglo-Saxon language of English, reforming schools across his new domain and increasing roads and infrastructure, with the city of Londinium, on the forefront. The city would continue to grow far past the original Roman walls as new buildings were created.
By the year 800 AD it was estimated that the population of the kingdom was now more than sixty percent Anglo-Saxon, as the acceptance of their culture gave way to increased migration into cities. Londinium became a large center for Anglo Saxon and Roman culture alike. Infrastructure rapidly increased as cheap labor gave way to large scale projects. In 1499 the Treaty of Londinium was signed, ending the Second English War of Unification, uniting the kingdoms of the British Isles, and officially establishing the city of Londinium as its capital.