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List of Rulers of Florence (Ninety-Five Theses Map Game)

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This page lists all of the rulers of the Florentine or Tuscan region starting with the Republic of Florence. An oligarchic republic, Florence was ruled by various gonfalonieres that had two month terms. Due to the prevalence and power of the Italian banking families, various houses seized power of the state and treated it like a heriditary title. The most notable of these families was the House of Medici.

De facto rulers of the Albizzi Family

The Albizzi family was a Florentine family originally based in Arezzo, who were rivals of the Medici and Alberti families. They were at the centre of Florentine oligarchy starting in 1382, due to the reaction that followed the Ciompi revolt. Their power declined due to the rise of the Medicis in 1434.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Maso degli Albizzi
1382 - 1417
Arm of Albizzi 1350? Unknown 1417
Rinaldo degli Albizzi
1417 - 1434
Arm of Albizzi 1370 Unknown 1442

De facto rulers of the House of Medici

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty. The Medici controlled the Medici bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled. The next year, however, saw a pro-Medici Signoria elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici became the town's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Cosimo de' Medici
5 September 1434 -
1 August 1464
Cosimo di Medici (Bronzino) 27 September 1389 Contessina de' Bardi
two children
1 August 1464
Piero I de' Medici
1 August 1464 -
2 December 1469
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici 19 September 1416 Lucrezia Tornabuoni
four children
2 December 1469
Lorenzo I de' Medici
2 December 1469 -
9 April 1492

Co-Ruler
Lorenzo di Medici 1 January 1449 Clarice Orsini
eight children
9 April 1492
Giuliano de' Medici
2 December 1469 -
26 April 1478

Co-Ruler
Giuliano de' Medici by Sandro Botticelli.jpeg 1 January 1449 Fioretta Gorini
one illegitimate child
26 April 1478
Piero II de' Medici
9 April 1492 -
9 November 1494
Agnolo Bronzino - Piero il Fatuo 1471 Alfonsina Orsini
two children
1503

De facto rulers during Republican Restoration

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Girolamo Savonarola
9 November 1494 -
23 May 1498
Girolamo Savonarola 21 September 1452 Unknown 23 May 1498
Executed
Various Elected Gonfalonieres
23 May 1498 - 1502
FlorenceCoA 23 May 1498 N/A 1502
Piero Soderini
1502 - 1512
Piero Soderini (1450-1522), by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio 18 May 1450 Unknown 13 June 1522

De facto rulers of the House of Medici

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Cardinal Giovanni
de' Medici

1512 - 1513
Leo X Rubens 11 December 1475 Celibate 1 December 1521
Giuliano II de' Medici
9 March 1513 -
17 March 1516
Raffaello, giuliano de' medici 12 March 1479 Filiberta of Savoy
one illegitimate child
17 March 1516
Lorenzo II de' Medici
17 March 1516 -
Present
Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici 12 September 1492 Eleanor von Habsburg
five children 
Present
Giovanni I de' Medici
Heir Apparent
Ferdinando-de’Medici 14 April 1619 Unmarried Present

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