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List of Rulers of Austria (Principia Moderni III Map Game)

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This page list all rulers of the nation of Austria.

Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to the present.

Margraves of Austria

See also: March of Austria

The March of Austria, also known as Marcha Orientalis, was first formed in 976 out of the lands that had once been the March of Pannonia in Carolingian times. The oldest attestation dates back to 996, where the written name "ostarrichi" occurs in a document transferring land in present-day Austria to a Bavarian monastery.

House of Babenberg

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold I the Illustrious
(Luitpold der Erlauchte)
976–994
Herzog Leopold I. Babenberg c. 940 Richardis of Sualafeldgau
nine children
10 July 994
Würzburg
aged about 54
Henry I the Strong
(Heinrich der Starke)
994–1018
Herzog Heinrich I. Babenberg late 10th century
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
never married 23 June 1018
Adalbert the Victorious
(Adalbert der Siegreiche)
1018–1055
Adalbert der Siegreiche c. 985
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
(1) Glismod of West-Saxony
two children
(2) Frozza Orseolo
no issue
26 May 1055
Melk
aged about 70
Ernest the Brave
(Ernst der Tapfere)
1055–1075
Ernst II. der Tapfere c. 1027
son of Adalbert and Glismod of West-Saxony
(1) Adelaide of Eilenburg
1060
three children
(2) Swanhilde von der Ungarnmark
1072
no issue
10 June 1075
aged about 48
Leopold II the Fair
(Luitpold der Schöne)
1075-1095
Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg c. 1050
son of Ernest and Adelaide of Eilenburg
Ida of Cham
1065
eight children
12 October 1095
aged about 45
Leopold III the Good
(Luitpold der Heilige)
1095–1136
Herzog Leopold III. Babenberg c. 1073
Melk
son of Leopold II and Ida of Cham
(1) Maria of Perg
one son
(2) Agnes of Germany
1106
eighteen children
15 November 1136
Vienna
aged about 63
Leopold IV the Generous
(Luitpold der Freigiebige)
1137–1141
Markgraf Leopold IV. Babenberg c. 1108
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
Maria of Bohemia
28 September 1138
no issue
18 October 1141
Niederalteich
aged about 33
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1141–1156
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70

Dukes of Austria

See also: Duchy of Austria

In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated the march to a duchy, independent of the Duchy of Bavaria.

House of Babenberg

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1156-1177
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70
Leopold V the Virtuous
(Luitpold der Tugendhafte)
1177-1194
Herzog Leopold V. Babenberg c. 1157
son of Henry II and Theodora Komnene
Helena of Hungary
1174
four children
31 December 1194
Graz
aged about 37
Frederick I the Catholic
(Friedrich der Katholische)
1195-1198
Herzog Friedrich I. der Christliche c. 1175
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
never married 16 April 1198
The Holy Land
aged about 23
Leopold VI the Glorious
(Luitpold der Glorreiche)
1198-1230
Herzog Leopold VI. Babenberg c. 1176
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
Theodora Angelina
1203
seven children
28 July 1230
San Germano
aged about 54
Frederick II the Quarrelsome
(Friedrich der Streitbare)
1230-1246
Herzog Friedrich II. Babenberg 25 April 1211
Wiener Neustadt
son of Leopold VI and Theodora Angelina
(1) Sophia Laskarina
no issue
(2) Agnes of Merania
1229
no issue
15 June 1246
Leitha
aged 35

Interregnum

Ottokar II Premysl

Ottokar of Bohemia

After Frederick's death, the succession of the Duchy was disputed between various claimants:

  • Vladislaus of Moravia, claimant 1246-1247
  • Herman VI of Baden, claimant 1248-1250
  • Frederick I of Baden, claimant 1250-1268
  • Ottokar II of Bohemia, claimant 1251-1278

House of Habsburg

In 1278, Rudolf I, King of Germany, defeated Ottokar and took control of Austria. In 1282 he invested his sons with the Duchies of Austria and Styria, thereby securing it for the House of Habsburg.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Rudolf I
1278-1282
Minnigerode-rudolf 1 May 1218
Breisgau
son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg and Hedwig of Kyburg
(1) Gertrude of Hohenburg
1245
9 children
(2) Isabella of Burgundy
5 February 1284
no issue
15 July 1291
Speyer
aged 73
Albert I
1282-1308
Albert I of Germany July 1255
Vienna
eldest son of Rudolf I and Gertrude of Hohenburg
Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
20 December 1274
Vienna
12 children
1 May 1308
Windisch
aged 52
Rudolf II the Debonair
1282-1283
Erb July 1270
Rheinfelden
third son of Rudolph I and Gertrude of Hohenburg
Agnes of Bohemia
March 1289
Prague
one son
10 May 1290
Prague
aged 20
Rudolf III the Good
1298-1307
Rudolf Stepan c. 1281
Vienna
eldest son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
(1) Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one daughter
(2) Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
16 October 1306
no issue
3/4 July 1307
Horažďovice
aged 26
Frederick I the Fair
1308-1330
Friedrich der Schöne c. 1289
Vienna
second son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Isabella of Aragon
11 May 1315
Ravensburg
three children
13 January 1330
Gutenstein
aged 41
Leopold I the Glorious
1308-1326
Leopold1mini 4 August 1290
Vienna
third son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Catherine of Savoy
26 May 1315
Basel
two daughters
28 February 1326
Strassburg
aged 35
Albert II the Wise
1330-1358
Albert II of Habsburg 12 December 1298
Habsburg Castle
fourth son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Joanna of Pfirt
15 February 1324
Vienna
six children
16 August 1358
Vienna
aged 59
Otto I the Merry
1330-1339
Otto, Duke of Austria 23 July 1301
Vienna
seventh son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
(1) Elisabeth of Bavaria
15 May 1325
Straubing
two sons
(2) Anne of Bohemia
16 February 1335
Znaim
no issue
17 February 1339
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 37
Frederick II
1339-1344
Ota synci2 10 February 1327
eldest son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 11 December 1344
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 17
Leopold II
1339-1344
c. 1328
second son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 10 August 1344
aged 16
Rudolf IV the Founder
1358-1365
Rudolf IV 1 November 1339
Vienna
eldest son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Catherine of Bohemia
13 July 1356
Vienna
no issue
27 July 1365
Milan
aged 25

Archdukes of Austria

House of Habsburg

See also: Archduchy of Austria

The Privilegium Maius, fabricated by Rudolf in 1359, attempted to invest the Dukes of Austria with the special position of an "Archduke". This title was frequently used by Ernest the Iron and other Dukes but not recognized by other princes of the Holy Roman Empire until Frederick V became Emperor and confirmed the Privilegium in 1453.

Rudolf was succeeded by his brothers that at first ruled jointly:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Albert III the Pigtail
1365-1379
Albrecht Dritte Habsburg1 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
(1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son
29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45
Leopold III the Just
1365-1379
Innsbruck 1 277 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children
9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34

Divided Rule

The territories were divided between the brothers and their descendants in the Treaty of Neuberg in 1379:

The Albertinian Line received the Duchy of Austria, later called Lower Austria:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Albert III the Pigtail
1379-1395
Albrecht Dritte Habsburg1 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
(1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son
29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45
Albert IV the Patient
1395-1404
Albrecht Vierte Habsburg 19 September 1377
Vienna
only son of Albert the Pigtail and Beatrice of Nuremberg
Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
24 April 1390
Vienna
two children
14 September 1404
Klosterneuburg
aged 26
Albert V
1404-1464
under joint guardianship
of Leopold IV and Ernest (1404–1410)
Albrecht II. von Habsburg 16 August 1397
Vienna
only son of Albert IV and Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
Elisabeth of Bohemia
1422
Vienna
five children
1464

The Leopoldinian Line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, the County of Tyrol and Further Austria:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold III the Just
1379-1386
Innsbruck 1 277 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children
9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34
William the Courteous
1386-1411
Wilhelm H c. 1370
Vienna
eldest son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
Joan II of Naples
13 November 1401
Vienna
One son
15 July 1411
Vienna
aged 41
Leopold IV the Fat
1386-1411
POlda4 c. 1371
Vienna
second son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
Catherine of Burgundy
15 August 1393
Vienna
no issue
3 June 1411
Vienna
aged 40
Ernest the Iron
1402-1406
Herzog Ernst tomb-slab c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children
10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1402-1406
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57
In 1406, the Leopoldinian lines split their territories:
The Elder Ernestine line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, also called Inner Austria:
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ernest the Iron
1402-1424
Herzog Ernst tomb-slab c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children
10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47
Albert the Prodigal
1424–1464
Albrecht VI. (Miniatur in Gebetbuch) c. 1418
Eldest son of Ernest the Iron and Viridis Visconti
None December 2 1464
Innsbruck
aged 57

Both under the guardianship of

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406-1439
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439

Innsbruck
aged 57

The Junior Tyrolean Line received Tyrol and soon also Further Austria. These territories were also called Upper Austria:
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406-1439
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
Sigismund the Rich
1439–1464
Sigismund of Austria 26 October 1427
Innsbruck
second son of Frederick IV and Anna of Brunswick
Mathilde of the Palatinate
1 December 1447

Innsbruck
no issue

December 2 1464
Innsbruck

Reunified Rule

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George I
1464-1486
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005 1434
Vienna
First son of Albert V and Elisabeth of Bohemia
Dorothea of Brandenburg
four children
1486
Maximilian I
1486-1508
Albrecht Dürer - Portrait of Maximilian I - Google Art Project 1458
Vienna
First son of George I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
Katharina of Alexandria

One son

1508
Charles V
1508-1562
Karl V by Ticiano
1486
Vienna
First son of Maximilian I and Katharina of Alexandria.
Alexis of Castile
Two sons
1562
Yuste, Spain
Ferdinand I
1508-1592
Hans Bocksberger (I) - Emperor Ferdinand I - WGA02326
1508
Vienna
Second son of Charles V and Alexis of Spain.
two sons 1592
Vienna
Wolfgang I
1545-Present
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002
1545
Vienna
First son of Ferdinand I and Elisabeth.
one son N/A


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