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List of Queens of Vinland (The Kalmar Union)

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Vinland CoA (The Kalmar Union).svg

Coat of Arms of Vinland

The Queens of Vinland are normally dated from the rule of Freydis. However, the actual title of 'Queen' was not used until 1082 when Thorey I was crowned by the newly installed bishop of Vinland. Until that point they had owed their position to merely being speakers of the Vinlandic Althing.

Why are Vinland and Álengiamark's crowns passed matrilinealy? The answer lies in the role of women in founding the original colony (especially Freydis and Gudrid), and also of the the autocratic rule of Snorri Thorfinnsson who abused his position as speaker to create a monopoly for himself. Once Snorri was overthrown, the Althing preferred a female speaker who in theory would not be able to wield the same level of power.

As childbirth was a major killer of women right up to modern times the line of descent often did not follow mother to daughter, as ruling queens avoided pregnancy. The Althing has historically had final say on electing queens though often the right to succeed is secured as soon as a new heir is born by an official act.

The family name is officially 'Eiriksdottír' but is also written Eriksdottir or Ericsdottir.

House of Eiriksdottír
Monarch Portrait Dates of Rule
Freydis I Freydis I (The Kalmar Union) (1021-1026)

(1026-1039) Different speakers of the Althing, sometimes referred to as the 'Democratic Interegnum' leading towards the autocratic rule of Snorri Thorfinnsson.

House of Eiriksdottír
Monarch Portrait Dates of Rule
St Hafdis I Hafdis I (The Kalmar Union) (1039-1058)
Sigrun Sigrun Vin (The Kalmar Union) (1058-1064)
Thorey I Thorey I (The Kalmar Union) (1064-1116) crowned 1082
Snaedis I Sneadis I (The Kalmar Union) (1116-1131)
Hafdis II Hafdis II Vin (The Kalmar Union) (1131-1142)
Asdis I Asdis I Vin (The Kalmar Union) (1142)
Iofridr Iofridr (The Kalmar Union) (1142-1201)
Thorey II Thorey II (The Kalmar Union) (1201-1206)
Kristjana I Kristjana I (The Kalmar Union) (1206-1230)
Jakobina I Jakobina I (The Kalmar Union) (1230-1231)
Freydis II Freydis II (The Kalmar Union) (1231-1252)
Thorey III Thorey III (The Kalmar Union) (1252-1261)
Kristjana II Kristjana II (The Kalmar Union) (1261-1280)
Thyri Thyri Vin (The Kalmar Union) (1280-1287)
Kristjana III Kristjana III (The Kalmar Union) (1287-1301)
Hafdis III Hafdis III (The Kalmar Union) (1301-1320)
Kristjana IV Kristjana IV (The Kalmar Union) (1320-1352)
Geirfrithur Geirfrithur (The Kalmar Union) (1352-1355)
Snaedis II Snaedis II (The Kalmar Union) (1355-1390)
Kristjana V Kristjana V (The Kalmar Union) (1390-1405)
Asdis II Asdis II (The Kalmar Union) (1405-1420)
Hafdis IV Hafdis IV (The Kalmar Union) (1420-1453)
Jakobina II Jakobina II (The Kalmar Union) (1453-1502)
Kristjana VI Kristjana VI (The Kalmar Union) (1502-1523)
Thorey IV Thorey IV (The Kalmar Union) (1523-1560)
Asdis III Asdis III (The Kalmar Union) 1560-1579
Snaedis III Snaedis III (The Kalmar Union) 1579-1603
Maídis Maidis (The Kalmar Union) 1603-1617
Thorey V Thorey V (The Kalmar Union) 1617-1621
Freydis III Freydis III (The Kalmar Union) 1621-1647
Greta I Greta I (The Kalmar Union) 1647-1681
Thorey VI Thorey VI Vin (The Kalmar Union) 1681-1694
Thorey VII Thorey VII Vin (The Kalmar Union) 1694-1712
Eyfinna I Eyfinna I (The Kalmar Union) 1712-1733
Greta II Greta II (The Kalmar Union) 1733-1756
Eyfinna II Eyfinna II (The Kalmar Union) 1756-1790
Lára Queen Mary II 1790-1819
Svenný I Svenny I (The Kalmar Union) 1819-1832
Svenný II Svenny II (The Kalmar Union) 1832-1857
Kristjana VII Kristjana VII (The Kalmar Union) 1857-1885
Svenný III Svenny III (The Kalmar Union) 1885-1902
Thorey VIII Thorey VIII (The Kalmar Union) 1902-1931
Sofía Sofia (The Kalmar Union) 1931-1960
Kristjana VIII Kristjana VIII (The Kalmar Union) 1960-1988
Kristjana IX Kristjana IX (The Kalmar Union) (1988-)

Eiriksson/Eiriksdottír Family Tree

A simplified family tree of the main line of descent of the Vinlandic queens.

Thorvald Asvaldsson
 
 
 
Unknown
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eirik
'the Red'
Thorvaldsson
 
 
 
Thjorhild?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leif Eiriksson
 
Thorvald
Eiriksson
 
Thorstein Eiriksson
 
Gudrid Thorbjarnars-
dottír
 
Thorfinn Karlsefni
 
Thorir?
 
Freydis I Eiriksdottír
Freydis I (The Kalmar Union)
 
Ulf Bjornsson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2 Sons

Earls of Greenland
 
 
 
 
 
Snorri Thorfinnsson
 
Thorbjorn Thorfinnsson
 
Hjorlefiur Ulfsson
 
St. Hafdis I Thorirsdottír
Hafdis I Vin small (The Kalmar Union)
 
Sigrun Ulfsdottír
Sigrun Vin (The Kalmar Union)
 
Jón Arasson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stymir Hjorlefiurs-
son
 
Halfdan Hjorlefiurs-
son
 
Thorgerd Dufthakrs-
dottír
 
Thorey I Hjorlefiurs-
dottír

Thorey I (The Kalmar Union)
 
 
 
Snorri Jónsson
 
Kolbeinn Jónsson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eirik Halfdansson
 
Gudrid Halfdansdottír
 
Gunnar
Grimrsson
 
Ulfljótr Halfdansson
 
Egil Halfdansson
 
 
 
 
 
Earls of Markland
 
Earls of Eikland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thorgeir Gunnarsson
 
 
 
Snaedis I Gunnarsdottír
Sneadis I (The Kalmar Union)
 
Osvífr Bjornsson
 
Earls of Kyreyja
 
Earls of Ingolfursey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earls of Vinland
 
Hafdis II Osvífrsdottír
Hafdis II Vin (The Kalmar Union)
 
Kári Einarsson
 
Elisiv Osvífrsdottír
Elisiv (The Kalmar Union)
(Queen of Álengiamark)
 
Grimhild Osvífrsdottír
 
Thorlákur Throddsson
 
Asdis I Osvífrsdottír
Asdis I Vin (The Kalmar Union)
 
Jón Osvífrsson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iofridr Kárisdottír
Iofridr (The Kalmar Union)
 
Ulf Jokullsson
 
Thorvald Kárisson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Birkir Thorlákursson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5 Sons

Eythor
Hákon
Tryggvi
Athalsteinn
Skuli
 
Eydis
Ulfsdottír

Eydis Álengia (The Kalmar Union)
(Queen of Álengiamark)
 
Thorey II
Ulfsdottír

Thorey II Vin (The Kalmar Union)
 
Kristjana Ulfsdottír
Kristjana I (The Kalmar Union)
 
Sturla Gissurarsson
 
Jakobina I Ulfsdottír
Jakobina I (The Kalmar Union)
 
Hrafn Kárasson
 
Gunn Birkirsson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Freydis II Hrafnsdottír
Freydis II (The Kalmar Union)
 
Pjetur Jorundursson
 
Gudmundur Hrafnsson
 
1 Other Son
1 Other Daughter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hlynor Guthnisson
 
Thorey III Gunnsdottír
Thorey III (The Kalmar Union)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Invar Gudmund-
ursson
 
Hafsteinn Ingolfursson
 
Kristjana II
Hlynursdottír

Kristjana II (The Kalmar Union)
 
Gardar Ivarsson
 
Eythor Hlynorsson
 
Valdemar Hlynursson
 
Adalheidur Hlynursdottír
 
Vilhjálmur Hlynursson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thyri Invarsdottír
Thyri Vin (The Kalmar Union)
 
Olaf Skulisson
 
 
Orn Gardarsson
 
Snaedis Gardarsdottír
 
Kári Olafsson
 
Áslaug Gardarsdottír
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kristjana III Olafsdottír
Kristjana III (The Kalmar Union)
 
Sigurthur Asgeirsson
 
 
Eric III
Of Denmark
 
Halfdan Eythorsson
 
Hafdis III Kárisdottír
Hafdis III (The Kalmar Union)
 
Elvar Elvarsson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Otto Ericsson
(Otto of Denmark)
 
Kristjana IV Halfdansdottír
Kristjana IV (The Kalmar Union)
 
Ari Tállsson
 
Geirfrithur Elvarsdottír
Geirfrithur (The Kalmar Union)
 
Vilhjálmur Magnusson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Runólf Arisson
 
Thordis Jónsdottír
 
Svend Arisson
 
 
 
 
 
Oláf Valdemarsson
 
Snaedis II Vilhjálmursdottír
Snaedis II (The Kalmar Union)
 
Bjarki Vilhjálmursson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Birgir Magnusson
 
Asdis II Svendsdottír
Asdis II (The Kalmar Union)
 
 
Bjarni Oláfsson
 
Otto Oláfsson
 
Kristjana V Oláfsdottír
Kristjana V (The Kalmar Union)
 
Steinar Hannesson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Snaedis Birgirsdottír
 
Jón Birgirsson
 
Hafdis IV Birgirsdottír
Hafdis IV (The Kalmar Union)
 
Kristian Hákonsson
 
Elisabet Birgirsdottír
 
Johánn Birgirsson
 
Birgir Birgirsson
 
 


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