The Queens of Álengiamark are dated from 1131 when the Norse colony of Vinland was split between the modern states of Vinland and Álengiamark on the death of Queen Snaedis I.
Why are Vinland and Álengiamark's crowns passed matralineally? The answer lies in the role of women in founding the original Vinland colony (especially Freydis and Gudrid), and also of the the autocratic rule of Snorri Thorfinnsson who abused his position as speaker to create a monopoly for himself. Once Snorri was overthrown, the Althing preferred a female speaker who in theory would not be able to wield the same level of power.
As childbirth was a major killer of women right up to modern times the line of descent often did not follow mother to daughter, as ruling queens avoided pregnancy.