This is a list of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. The list is from 1400 to the present. The Pope, as head of the Catholic Church, is considered to be the legitimate representative of God's will on Earth and the earthly center of the Christian faith. While this is not recognized everywhere, it does hold sway for most of Western Europe and some isolated areas in the Middle East. 

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
203 2 November 1389 - 1 October 1404 203-Boniface IX Boniface IX
Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism
204 4 January 1405 - 16 October 1415 204-Innocent VII Innocent VII
Landolfo Maramaldo Naples, Kingdom of Naples
  • Ended the Western Schism
205 1417-1445 John XXIII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimo Tertio
Angelo d'Accostella Rhodes, Hospitaller Rhodes
  • First Hospitaller Pope
  • Hussite Heresy and Concord of Luxembourg
  • Greek Crusade and Liberation of Constantinople
  • Partial resolution of East-West Schism
206 1445-1449 Callixtus III
Papa CALLIXTUS Tertius
Jacobus Palladinus de Teramo Naples, Kingdom of Naples
  • Re-issuing of Sicut Judaeis (1447) and Etsi Judaeorum (1448) in opposition to mass anti-Semetic pograms throughout Europe
  • Invention of printing press in Cologne and subsequent Bull Ex Machina (1448)
207 1451-1477 Callixtus IV
Papa CALLIXTUS Quattrus
Juan Carlos Cortez Burgos, Kingdom of Castile
  • First Spanish Pope
  • 1454 establishment of the Castilian Guard from troops gifted from Spain
  • Discipulina Antiqua (1455) empowers the Inquisition to crack down on laxity in clerical discipline
  • Bull Unus Panis, Unum Corpus (1468) establishes the sui iuris 'Reformed Northern Catholic Church of the Hussite Rite'
  • Norway ordered to re-settle Greenland (1468)
  • Issues Bull Indulgentarium Doctrina (1471) banning indulgences which involve transfers of money
208 1478-1520 Leo X
Papa Leone Decimus
Fernando Perez Toledo, Kingdom of Castile
  • War of the Grand Mediterranean Coalition
  • Bulgarian Crusade
  • Crackdown on lax monastic discipline
  • Writes on inculpable ignorance of the Faith (1486) after the collapse of the Greenland settlement
  • Ecclesiae Cardinalibus (1506) lowers number of votes required for a Pope to be elected from 10 to 8.
  • Rule of the Immaculata approved (1516) 
209 1520-1545 Adrian VI
Papa Hadrianus  Sextus
Thomas Rotherham St Albans, Kingdom of England
  • Jaegerite and Kappelist movements emerge
  • Ecumenical Council of Cologne (1522-1534)
  • Re-Schism of Eastern Churches under Bulgaria (1530)
  • Mission to Giapan (Japan) begins (1533)
  • Bull Dilexit Deus (1541) bans enslavement of New World natives
210 1546-1579 Gregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Himler von Stein Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia
  • First Northern Rite Pope
  • Foundation of Northern-Rite  "Berlin Mission Society" (1560)
  • Erection of the sui iuris "Sakhan Church of the East" (1564)
  • Gregorian Calendar promulgated (1565)
  • Japanese Civil War: victorious Catholic Shogun granted title Fidei Defensor (1569)
  • Maryland established under protection of Hospitallers (1577)
211 1580-1622 Innocent VIII          

Papa Innocentius Octavus

Guglielmo Roncalli Ravenna, Papal States
  • Dioceses erected in Nagasaki (1583) and Kyoto, Giapan
  • Mission to Andes region (began 1580s)
  • Rise of the conservative Angelicum faction (1593)
  • Promulgation of the 'Innocentine Mass' in the Latin Rite (1594)
  • Hitlerism condemned (1594)
  • Scientific heliocentrism cleared of theological error (1599)
  • Regnans in Excelsis condemns Hitlerism, calls for a crusade (1601)
  • Hitlerite Crusade (1601-1619)
  • Permits viri probati to the diaconate in Tondo Mission (1604)
  • Papal occupation of formerly Hitlerite Lombardy (1619)
212 1623-1656 Zachary II
Papa ZACHARIAS Secondus
Baldrich von Hochstaden Prüm, Imperial Abbey of Prüm
  • First Archbishop of Cologne elevated to the Papacy
  • Encyclical Pedes Christi on Christ's love for all mankind (1630)
  • Former Hitlerite Italy comes under direct Papal control (1630)
  • Anatolian Crusade: approx. 5,000 Papal troops take part
  • Begins Investigation into the Condition of the Missions (1640)
  • Constitutes Legatine Courts to solve disputes in Mission territories (1655)
  • Approval given to the Hospitallers' "High Seas Crusade" (1656)
213 1657-1693 Cornelius II
Papa CORNELIUS Secondus
Cornelius Ricci Rome, Papal States
  • Patron of prominent composer Fritz Wolfenburg
  • Our Lady of Pituba apparitions (1597), given papal recognition 1662
  • Neo-Hitlerite rioting (1663-5) and March on Rome (1665-6), ultimately crushed
  • England and colonies placed under interdict for breaking the Papal Truce of the Treaty of Rome (1665) lifted following year
  • Great Fire of Rome (1666)
  • Kidnap of Cornelius in Bari (1675)
  • Cornelius freed by Papal and Saxon force (1680)
  • Encyclical Plane compertum on East Asian rites (1682)
  • Encyclical Mulieres honore on feminism and the dignity of womanhood (1691)
214 1694-1717 Zosimus II
Papa ZOSIMUS Secondus
Paulo Ricci Rome, Papal States
  • Nephew of Cornelius II
  • Conquered Montferrat whilst Cardinal-Legate of Milan (1688-91)
  • Modernised Papal military (1695-9)
  • Joint Bull with the Grand Patriarch mututally recognising Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Sacraments (1702)
215 1719-1745 Urban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Mateo Lopez Madrid, Iberia
  • Declaration on Christ sent to Coptic Pope Mark III (1721)
  • Victim of a scurrilous rumour (proven false), that he had relations with Maria-Theresa Cornaro, first female professor at a European university (1722)
  • Ecumencial Council of Alexandria (1725-1731)
216 1747-1763 Michael
Mikhail Konstanov Constantinople, Belka
  • First Patriarch of Constantinople to be elected Pope
  • Avignon Schism (1748-1762)
  • Britain regained for Rome (1750)
  • Encyclical Ut omnes unum sunt for Church unity (1750)
  • Fifth Council of the Lateran (1755-1762) healed Avignon Schism
  • Abdicated 1763.
(antipope) 1748-1762 Alexander V
Papa ALEXANDER Quintus
X Borja Paris, France
  • Cardinal-Archbishop of Paris
  • Instigator of schismatic 1748 'Avignon Conclave'
  • Appointed "nephew" (illegitimate son) a cardinal (1750)
  • Repealed Sicut Judaeis and Dillixit Deus, thereby lifting bans on persecuting Jews, and slavery (in schismatic countries only)
217 1764-1795 Innocent IX
Antonio Fraternelli Bologna, Papal States
  • Formerly Patriarch of the Latin Rite
  • Papal-Italian War (1766-7), part of the larger Seven Year's War (1760-7)
  • Establishment of the Parlamento to assist with secular governance, inspired by Neoscholasticism, esp. Kant (1769)
  • Council of Vasiligrad (1786-)
  • Encyclical Immensa dolor on the revolutions across Europe (1794)
218 1796-1815 Henry
Henry Watford Centerbury, Great Britain
  • Formerly Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Rise of Napoleon
  • End of Council of Vasiligrad (1796)
  • Papal-Napoleonic Detente, Henry recognises Napoleon as Emperor (1806)
  • Re-issue of Sicut Judaeis, with explicit protection for Gypsies (1811)
219 1816- Michael II
Papa MICHAEL Secundus
Vasiligrad, Belka
  • Formerly Ecumenical Patriarch
  • Napoleon turns on the Papacy (1815)
  • Elected in spite of Napoleon's opposition
  • Papal military crushed in Battle near Adriatic (1817)
  • Hawaii (1819) and Uluru (1826) raised to diocese

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