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This is a list of all the leaders of the Florentine Republic, Kingdom of Italy and United Duchies of Italy since Cosimo I became the de facto leader of Florence.

(Note: The name is the bold, the title in Italian in itallics. People created specifically for this timeline have an asterisk (*) at the end of their name.

Florentine Republic

Cosimo I de'Medici, Il Vechio (the Old) - Cosimo I de' Medici (reigned 1433-1464) was the founder of Medici political involvement. He was the leader of the Medici all the way to his death in 1464. At the time of his death, Florence was still a secondary power in Italy. But that was soon to change.

Piero I de' Medici, il Gottosso (the Gouty) - Piero I de' Medici (reigned 1464-1469) stayed most of his reign either on bed, fighting against his gout, or fighting against rich Florentines that thought they were the true successors to Cosimo.

Lorenzo I de' Medici, il Magnifico (the Magnificient) - Lorenzo I de' Medici (reigned 1469-1520) was the true power behind Piero's power between 1466 and Piero's death. Being able to defeat his main enemies, including the leader of the anti-Medici party, Luca Pitti. During his republican reign (1469-1490) he patronized many works of art, bringing the Florentine Renaissance to it's height.

Duchy of Florence

Lorenzo I de' Medici, il Magnifico (the Magnificient) - Lorenzo I de' Medici became king in 1490 after realizing the greatness of the nearby monarchist nations. Florence is re-ordered into a constitutional monarchy: One of the first in the world. Lorenzo was of the first Medici generation that skipped gout, making him live much longer than any of his predecessors. He died at 1520, at the age of 71. During Lorenzo's reign, Florence became the greatest nation of Italy, and Florence the most populated city.

Piero II de' Medici, il Fatuo (the Unfortunate) - Piero II de' Medici (1520-1528) was as, if not more, innefective than his predecessor with the same name. During his reign, a series of people's revolts almost overthrew Piero and seriously weakened Florence, although it still was the most powerful nation of Italy when he was killed (possibly by his own son Lorenzo II) in 1528.

Lorenzo II de' Medici, Lorenzino (Little Lorenzo) - Lorenzo II de' Medici (1528-1535), doge of Florence and Urbino, ascended to power when Piero II de' Medici was killed in a plot, possibly led by Lorenzo himself. He was a strong ruler and Florence recuperated under his reign. However, many people hated Lorenzo II, who was killed in Urbino, his other kingdom, in late 1535.

Alessandro I de' Medici, il Moro (the Moor) - Alessandro I de' Medici (1535-1540) was the illegitimate son of Lorenzo II and a Moorish woman. His reign was thought of as cruel. Although Florence continued to improve economically during his reign, Alessandro was hated throughout the Duchy of Florence, even though during his reign the Republic of Siena was conquered.

Giulio I de' Medici, il Illegitimo (the Illegitimate) -

Cosimo II de' Medici*, il Ultimo (the Last) -

Kingdom of Italy

Cosimo II de' Medici*, il Ultimo (the Last) -

Lorenzo III de' Medici*, il Spagnolo (the Spanish) -

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