The Kingdom of Portugal was formed on approximately July 25th 1139 under its first king, Afonso Henriques, who before then, was Count of Portucale, and a vassal of the Kingdom of León. From 1093 (if the County of Portucale is counted) to 1383, the Kingdom was ruled by a branch of the House of Burgundy, in itself a branch of the Capetian dynasty. After a sucession crisis, in which the King of Castille claimed the throne, João, Grand Master of the Order of Avis, and illegitimate son of Pedro I, was crowned in 1385, starting the House of Avis. The title of heir apparent was "Prince of Portugal" from 1433 to 1586, with a brief interval in which the name "Prince of Porto" was used during the 1470's. The title was replaced by "Prince of Galicia", in celebration of the conquest of Galicia during the Secoind Galician war with Castille. To date Portugal practices male primogeniture (like other European countries). This means that if the Portuguese Royals have a first-born that is a girl, she will lose her title as Princess of Portugal to her younger brother, who then becomes the Prince of Portugal.
The formal title of the King is: "By the Grace of God, King of Portugal, Galicia, Castille, León, Toledo, Seville, Córdoba, Jaén, Asturias and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa and Lord of Guinea, Brasil, Molina, Biscay and either side of the Rio da Prata.". Some other appendages might be added to this base title.
Pedro I (1320-[1357-1367])Edit
- Spouse:Constança de Peñafiel (1320-1345) (married 1339)
- Heirs apparent: Fernando (1357-1367)
- Luis (1340)
- Maria (1342-1367)
- Fernando I of Portugal (1345-1383)
--- Illegitimate issue:
By Inês de Castro (1325-1355)
- Afonso (1346)
- Beatriz (1347-1381) - married Sancho Alfonso, Count of Alburquerque
- João (1349-1397)
- Dinis (1354-1397)
By Teresa Lourenço
- João, Grandmaster of the Order of Aviz (future João I of Portugal) (1357-1433)
Notable actions - Afonso IV married his daughter, Maria, to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married his son and heir, Pedro, to Constance.
When Constanza arrived in Portugal, Inês de Castro, the daughter of Pedro Fernández de Castro, an aristocratic Castilian land-owner, accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Peter fell in love with Inês very quickly, and the two conducted an affair that lasted until Constance's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish Inês from court, but this did not end the relationship, and the two began living together in secret.
According to the chronicle of Fernão Lopes, during this period, Peter began giving Inês's brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death, the Portuguese throne would fall to the Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next action: he sent three men to find Inês and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what allegedly sparked his revolt against his father. This revolt began in 1355 and lasted into 1356, when Afonso finally defeated his son. One year later Afonso died, and Peter succeeded to the throne.
Pedro allegedly had Inês de Castro's body exhumed and crowned Queen of Portugal, forcing the clergy and nobility to kiss the bones of her hands.
Fernão Lopes labels Peter as "the Just" and said that Peter loved justice—especially the dispensing of it, which he enjoyed doing for himself. Inês' assassins received his harshest punishment: the three had escaped to Castile, but Peter arranged for them to be exchanged for Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, Peter of Castile. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes says that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own hands. It is possible that Peter I of Portugal has been confused with Peter of Castile: both have the same name, both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and both are credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Peter I of Portugal did have a peaceful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Beneplácito Régio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son João (an illegitimate child born after Inês' death) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He claimed that he and Inês had been married and thus that their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this. Peter and Inês' children went to live in Castile.
Fernando I (1345-[1367-1383])Edit
- Spouse:Leonor Teles de Meneses (1350-1386) (married 1371)
- Heirs apparent: Beatriz (1373-1375/1375-1382/1382-1383), Pedro (1375), Afonso (1382)
- Beatriz (1373-1408)
- Pedro (1375)
- Afonso (1382)
--- Illegitimate issue:
- Isabel (1364-1395) -- married Alfonso, Count of Gijón and Noreña (1358-1415)
Notable actions - On the death of Pedro I of Castile in 1369, Ferdinand, as great-grandson of Sancho IV by the female line, laid claim to the vacant throne, for which the kings of Aragon and Navarre, and afterwards John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (married in 1370 to Constance, the eldest daughter of Peter), also became competitors.
Meanwhile, Enrique II of Castile, Pedro's illegitimate brother, who had defeated Pedro, assumed his crown and took the field. After one or two indecisive campaigns, all parties were ready to accept the mediation of Pope Gregory XI. The conditions of the treaty, ratified in 1371, included a marriage between Ferdinand and Leonora of Castile. But before the union could take place Fernando had become passionately attached to Leonor Telles de Menezes, the wife of João Lourenço da Cunha, one of his own courtiers. Having procured a dissolution of her previous marriage, he lost no time in making Leonor his queen.
This strange conduct, although it raised a serious insurrection in Portugal, did not at once result in a war with Henry. However, the outward concord was soon disturbed by the intrigues of the Duke of Lancaster, who prevailed on Ferdinand to enter into a secret treaty for the expulsion of Henry from his throne. The war which followed was unsuccessful; and peace was again made in 1373. On the death of Henry in 1379, the Duke of Lancaster once more put forward his claims, and again found an ally in Portugal. According to the Continental annalists, the English proved as offensive to their allies as to their enemies in the field. So Ferdinand made a peace for himself at Badajoz in 1382. It stipulated that Beatrice, Ferdinand's daughter and heiress, would marry King John I of Castile, and thus secure the ultimate union of the two crowns.
Ferdinand left no male heir when he died on 22 October 1383, and the direct Burgundian line, which had been in possession of the throne since the days of Count Henry (about 1112), became extinct. The stipulations of the treaty of Badajoz were set aside, and John, Grand Master of the order of Aviz, Ferdinand's illegitimate brother, claimed the throne. This led to a period of war and political indefinition known as the 1383-1385 Crisis. John became the first king of the House of Aviz in 1385.
Meanwhile on internal policies, after the peace with Castille, Fernando dedicated himself to the administration of the kingdom, ordering the repairing of many castles and the building of others, also ordering the building of new walls around Lisboa and Porto.The trade relations with foreign countries also were expanded, with the development of the navy being important for this.The "Companhia das Naus" was created on his reign.
João I (1357-[1385-1433])Edit
- Spouse: Philippa of Lancaster (1359-1415) (married 1387)
- Heirs apparent: Branca (1388-1389), Afonso (1390-1400), Duarte (1400-1433)
- Branca (1388-1389)
- Afonso (1390-1400)
- Duarte (1391-1438)
- Pedro, Duke of Coimbra (1392-1449) -- married Isabel de Urgel (1409-1459)
- Henrique, Duke of Viseu (1394-1460)
- Isabel (1397-1471) -- married Philip III, Duke of Burgundy
- Branca (1398)
- João, Lord of Reguengos (1400-1442) -- married Beatriz of Barcelos (1405-?)
- Fernando, Grand Master of The Order of Avis (1402-1443)
--- Illegitimate issue:
- Afonso, Count of Barcelos, later Duke of Bragança (1377-1460) -- married Beatriz Pereira Alvim (c. 1380-1415)
Notable actions - On the death of his half-brother Fernando I without a male heir in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Princess Beatriz, Fernando's only daughter. As heiress presumptive, Beatriz had married King Juan I of Castile, but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have become virtually annexed by Castile. A crisis, lasting from 1383 to 1385, followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country.
On 6 April 1385, the Cortes met in Coimbra and declared João, then Master of Aviz, King of Portugal. This was followed by the liberation of almost all of the Minho in only two months, on the war against Castile and its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the King of Castile again invaded Portugal with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing João I from the throne. Juan I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John (see Hundred Years' War). João I and Nuno Álvares Pereira, his loyal Constable and talented supporter, repelled the attack on the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota (14 August 1385), where the Castilian army was virtually annihilated. Juan I of Castile then retreated. The Castilian forces abandoned Santarém, Torres Vedras, Torres Novas, many other towns were delivered to João I by Portuguese nobles from the Castilian side and the stability of the Portuguese throne was permanently secured.
On 11 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, who had proved to be a worthy ally, consolidating the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance that endures to the present day.
After the death of Juan I of Castile in 1390, without leaving issue by Beatriz, John I of Portugal ruled in peace and pursued the economic development of the country. The only significant military action was the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta in 1415. By this step he aimed to control navigation of the African coast. But in the broader perspective, this was the first step opening the Arabian world to medieval Europe, which in fact led to the Age of Discovery with Portuguese explorers sailing across the whole world.
Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit, very keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time with a benevolent and kind personality. His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed to his sons, often collectively referred to by Portuguese historians as "Ínclita Geração" : Duarte, the future king, was a poet and a writer; Pedro, the Duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time; and Prince Henrique, "O Navegador", the Duke of Viseu, invested heavily in science and the development of nautical pursuits. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, Isabel, married Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and enjoyed an extremely refined court culture in his lands.
Duarte I (1391-[1433-1438])Edit
- Spouse: Eleanor of Aragon (1402-1455) [married 1428]
- Heirs apparent: Afonso (1433-1438)
- João (1429-1433)
- Felipa (1430-1441)
- Afonso, Prince of Portugal (1432-1474)
- Fernando, Duke of Beja (1433-1470) -- married Beatriz of Reguengos (1430-1503) [married 1447]
- Leonor of Portugal (1434-1467) -- married Frederick V, Duke of Austria (1415-1493)
- Duarte (1435)
- Catarina (1436-1463)
- Joana (1439-1475)
--- Illegitimate issue:
- João Manuel de Portugal e Vilhena, Bishop of Guarda (1416-1476)
Notable actions - Followed the politics of his father concerning the maritime exploration of Africa. He encouraged and financed his famous brother, Henrique "O Navegador", who initiated many expeditions on the west coast of Africa. That of Gil Eanes in 1434 first rounded Cape Bojador on the northwestern coast of Africa, leading the way for further exploration southward along the African coast.
Afonso V (1432-[1438-1474])Edit
- Spouse: Isabel de Coimbra (1433-1486) [married 1445]
- Heirs apparent: Fernando (1438-1451/1451-1452)João (1451), Joana (1452-1455), Afonso (1455-1474)
- João, Prince of Portugal (1451)
- Joana (1452-1490) -- married firstly Edward IV of England, and secondly, George of England (married 1469)
- Afonso, Prince of Portugal (1455-1482)
- João, Duke of Coimbra (1457-1495) -- married Eleanor de Viseu (1477)
- Duarte, Duke of Guimarães (1460-1512) -- married Felipa de Macedo (1480)
Notable actions - In his early reign, was very influenced by Afonso, his half-uncle and Duke of Bragança since 1443 (before then he was the Count of Barcelos). Had decentralizing tendencies, and gave nobility titles to various members of the House of Bragança. Was relatively absent from the administrative viewpoint. His reign also saw the development of Portuguese presence on the African coast.
Afonso VI (1455-[1474-1482])Edit
- Spouse: Anne Of York (1439-1486) [married 1470]
- Heirs apparent: Diogo (1474), João (1474-1475), Afonso (1475-1482)
- Diogo, Prince of Porto (1474)
- Afonso, Prince of Porto (1475-1485)
- Leonor (1477-1483)
Notable actions - Followed the same tendencies as his father. Involved himself in a disastrous war against Castille, which ended up with the loss of Ceuta after the Holy Roman Empire got involved. Died of the plague before the war's end.
Afonso VII (1475-[1482-1485])Edit
- Spouse: none
- Heirs apparent: Leonor (1482-1483), João (1483-1485)
Notable actions - Most of the actions on his reign effectively done by his regents, João, Duke of Coimbra, and Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, with actions including resuming of the growth of the colonies, which had stagnated under Afonso VI, with the establishment of the feitoria of São Jorge da Mina early on his reign, and the attempts at centralization.
João II (1457-[1485-1495])Edit
- Spouse: Eleanor of Viseu (1458-1525) [married 1477]
- Heirs apparent: Urraca (1485-1487), João (1487-1495)
- Urraca (1479-1547)
- João (1480-1481)
- Teresa (1482-1548) -- married John, Prince of Cyprus (1504)
- João, Prince of Portugal (1487-1497)
- Maria (1487-1490)
--- Illegitimate issue:
- Jorge de Lancastre (1481-1550) -- married Brites de Vilhena (1483-1535) (1500)
Notable actions - led armies during the war with Castille. Near the end of the war, he and his brother Duarte became regents for their nephew Afonso VII. During this time, various measures were made to take power away from the nobility and concentrate it on the king's person. Executed the then Duke of Bragança, Afonso III, under charges of treason. Meanwhile, he also centralized the trade and exploration of the coast of Guinea and the Gulf of Guinea, which led to the establishment of the feitoria of São Joirge da Mina in 1482. His reign also saw an emphasis on exploration of the Atlantic, which culminated with the discovery of Antília in 1492, and the finding of a sea route to India. In his reign, the aforementioned Duarte was very prominent.
João III (1487-[1495-1497])Edit
- Spouse: none
- Heirs apparent: Urraca (1495-1497)
Notable actions - his reign was not very remarkable, except for the fact that his uncle Duarte continued to be very influential.
- Spouse: firstly, Afonso de Viseu (1480-1502) [married 1497], and secondly, Afonso de Bragança (1484-1543) [married 1503]
- Heirs apparent: Teresa (1497-1498), Dinis (1498-1508), Pedro (1508-1547)
- Dinis, Prince of Portugal (1498-1508)
- Urraca (1502-1570) -- married Leopold, Prince of Anhalt (1515)
- Pedro, Prince of Portugal (1506-1561) -- married Victoria, Princess of Sweden (1505-1564) (1519)
- Afonso, Duke of Bragança (1508-1556) -- married Isabel de Vilhena (1512-1558)
- Isabel (1509-1564)
- Manuel (1511-1513)
- João, Duke of Coimbra (1513-1535)
- Maria (1515)
- Constança (1517-1560)
- Garcia, Duke of Coimbra (1518-1586) -- married Inês, Duchess of Guimarães (1520-1574) (1538)
Notable actions - Urraca's reign was mainly marked by the increasing centralization of power, and some expansionist tendencies. A maritime way to India was discovered in 1500 on an expedition led by Vasco da Gama. However, Portugal's relations with India became only commercial due to the heavy presence of the Caliphate on the area. Thus, most of the expansion was made on the colonies on northern and southern Antília. Various land masses on Antília were discovered during her reign. Most notably, in the colony of Brasil, which by the end of her reign, had become as big as Portugal itself in area, though most of this area was disconnected.
During Urraca's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Portuguese Cortes (the assembly of the kingdom) only met six times during her 50-year reign, always in Lisbon, the queen's seat. She reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights. Urraca also was very religious and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Despite this, her laws against Kappelianism were somewhat lenient if compared to other nations, such as Brandenburg. The reign of Urraca also was marked by active diplomacy, contrasting with João II's diplomatic isolationism. With Scandinavia, she made alliances through marriage (her son Pedro with Victoria of Sweden, which would eventually become queen of Scandinavia in 1547.), beside opening diplomatic relations with countries like Cyprus, France and Anhalt. However, diplomatic relations with Castille continued nearly non-existent, as they were since the war with Castille.
Urraca's support for the humanist cause was also significant. In literature, her active support of Gil Vicente, Garcia de Resende, Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, Fernão Mendes Pinto and João de Barros was notable. In the sciences, Urraca supported mathematician Pedro Nunes and physician Garcia de Orta. She definitively transferred the Portuguese university from Lisbon to Coimbra in 1538, and in the same year, a university was created in São Salvador da Bahia. In 1542 Urraca created in Coimbra a College of Arts. Another noteworthy aspect of Urraca's rule was the support she gave to missionaries in the New World.
Pedro II (1506-[1547-1561])Edit
- Spouse: Victoria I of Scandinavia (1505-1564) (married 1519)
- Heirs apparent: Dinis (1547-1561)
- Urraca, Countess of Guarda (1523-1586)
- Dinis, Prince of Portugal (1525-1562)
- Afonso, Count of Trancoso (1527-1580)
- Joana (1530-1592) -- married Francis, Duke of Burgundy (1529-) (1551)
- Maria (1533-1591) -- married Ernest Augustus, Count of Anhalt (1554)
- Inês (1537-1605)
- Pedro, Archbishop of Évora (1539-1623)
Notable actions - Pedro II's reign was marked mostly by his constant absence from the country, spending most of his reign in Scandinavia. His younger brother, Garcia, Duke of Coimbra, basically took care of affairs on his prolonged absences. In His reign, the colony of Santa Maria, sold to Naples in return for their feitoria on the Guaiba Lake some twenty or thirty years before, was recovered after a war with Naples and Savoy, in which Scandinavia and Venice also were present.
Dinis II (1525-[1561-1562])Edit
- Spouse: firstly, Catherine of La Tour d'Auvergne (1522-1560) (married 1545), secondly, Maria Teles de Meneses (1536-1593) (marriage arranged in 1562, but never realized nor consummated,)
- Heirs apparent: Afonso (1561-1562)
- Joana (1550-1552)
- Catarina (1555-1559)
- Pedro (1557-1559)
- Urraca (1557-1558)
- Afonso (1560)
Notable actions - Despite having one of the shortest reigns of a Portuguese monarch, Dinis' reign was busy. Despite the reconquest of Santa Maria being completed on the reign of Pedro, most of the reorganizing of the colonies was made by Dinis, with the first capitães-donatários of Rio da Prata being personally appointed by Dinis. The University of Évora also was founded during his reign, aside of implanting a governo-geral in Rio da Prata.
Afonso X (1527-[1562-1580])Edit
- Spouse: Selena of Bavaria (1533-1598) (married 1554)
- Heirs apparent: João (1562-1580)
- João, Prince of Portugal and Finland (1555-1583)
- Garcia Érico, Prince of Norway (1557-1587)
- Karina (1559-1630) -- married Nuno VIII, Count of Lara
- Leonor (1563-1631) -- married Otto, Prince of Saxony (c. 1570-)
- Álvaro (1565-1585)
Notable actions - Assumed the throne on the death of his brother Dinis, whose children didn't survive him. Was the first king of both Portugal and Scandinavia from 1564 on. During the great plague of Lisbon in 1569, Afonso sent for doctors from Seville to help the Portuguese doctors fight the plague. He created two hospitals in Lisbon to take care of those afflicted with the plague.
In his concern for the widows and orphans of those killed by the plague, he created several Recolhimentos known as the Recolhimento de Santa Marta (shelter of Santa Marta) and the Recolhimento dos Meninos and provided wet nurses to take care of the babies. Legal Reforms.
When of the Caliphatine invasion of Muscowy and Novgorod in the late 1560's, Afonso went to Scandinavia, in case the Muslims reached the Scandinavian borders, and stayed there for most of his later reign, with the regent during those occasions being Garcia, Duke of Coimbra.
Garcia created laws for the military, the Lei das Armas, that would become a military organization model. Also in 1570, Garcia ordered that the Brazilian natives should not be used as slaves and ordered the release of those held in captivity, preceding the Papal bull regarding that for five years.
In 1572, When Venice was invaded by the Caliphate, Afonso declared support for Venice, like other European nations.
In 1573, Garcia commissioned the construction of the Royal Basilica in Castro Verde as a tribute to the Battle of Ourique.
In 1575 with the Carta de Lei de Almeirim, the regent established a system of measures for solid and liquid products and also defined the role of public servants.
After the collapse of the Caliphate, Afonso came back to Portugal in 1576.
The Celeiros Comuns (Communal Granaries) were inaugurated in 1576 on Garcia's orders. These were lending institutions intended to help to poor farmers when farm production decreased, giving credit, lending seeds and commodities to the needy, allowing them to pay back with farm products when they recovered from losses.
The mathematician and cosmographer Pedro Nunes was appointed by Garcia as a cosmography teacher for sea pilots. It was during Garcia's stead as regent that Nunes wrote the Petri Nonii Salaciensis Opera.
The number of shipwrecks decreased and almost every single ship arrived in port during the whole of Afonso's reign.
In 1577 Afonso’s ordinance "Da nova ordem do juízo, sobre o abreviar das demandas, e execução dellas" decreased the time for handling legal actions, regulated the action of lawyers, scribes and other court officials, and created fines for delays.
João IV (1555-[1580-1583])Edit
- Spouse: none
- Heirs apparent: Garcia (1580-1583)
Notable actions - Ascended to the throne in 1580. After ascending to the throne, João started to plan an invasion of Castille to conquer Galicia, the same reason why Afonso VI declared war in 1477. He declared war in 1582, with the forces mobilizing themselves by 1583. João led a Portuguese force himself through the borders at the east, while another force, led by Duarte, Duke of Bragança, led an attack through the north. Resistance on the east was stronger than in the north, and João eventually died of wounds acquired on a siege.
Garcia I (1557-[1583-1587])Edit
- Spouse: Isabel de Barcelos (1558-1630) (married 1572)
- Heirs apparent: Duarte (1583-1586), Karina (1586-1587)
- Duarte, Prince of Portugal (1578-1586)
Notable actions - Ascended to the throne after his brother's death. The war continued during his reign, and the command was divided on the eastern border. However, the war went much better than expected due to the outdated state of the Castillian armed forces, and the division of command might had something to do with the success. On 1586, Garcia added all the titles associated with the Castillian crown to his titles, becoming Garcia II on Castille, Garcia III in León, Asturias and Galicia, and Garcia I on Córdoba, Sevilha, Jaén, Toledo and Murcia.
Karina/Urraca II (1559-[1587-1630])Edit
- Spouse: Nuno VIII de Lara (1558-1630) (married 1579)
- Heirs apparent: Duarte (1586-1630)
- Olavo (1580)
- Carlos (1582-1583)
- Isabel (1584-1656) --married Pedro IV de Andrade (1582-1649)
- Duarte, Prince of Galicia (1586-1650)
- Alfonso, Prince of Asturias (1588-1635) --married Isabel de Castro (1590-1668)
- Nuno, Prince of Cantabria (1590-1611) --married Joana de Austria (1585-1648)
- Urraca (1591-1644) --married Garcia Froiláz de Trava, Count of Trastâmara (1590-1642)
- Canuto, Duke of Guimarães and Count of Lara (as Nuno IX)(1593-1620)
- Carina (1596-1620)
- Sancha (1597-1671)
- Pedro, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (as Pedro X) (1599-1655)
- Elvira (1600-1668) - married Antônio de Távora, Count of Távora (1601-1662)
Notable actions - ascended to the throne in 1587, after her brother Garcia died with no surviving children. Married Nuno de Lara, second son of the future Count of Lara, João, but who inherited the county after his older brother's death. Since Nuno already had male children with Karina/Urraca, Nuno was crowned King of Portugal along with her, starting the rule of the Portuguese House of Lara, which claimed to be descended directly from the older Castillian House of Lara. Their reign was marked by colonial expansion on their respective countries, with Scandinavia conquering Mombasa on a war from 1608 to 1615, and Portugal gaining much of the coast of Gujarat, and thus a foothold on India, and also establishing Portuguese presence on Sofala and Moçambique during the course of this same war.
Duarte II (1586-[1630-1647])Edit
- Spouse: Maria Álvares de Toledo (1584-1633) (married 1602)
- Heirs apparent: Dinis (1630-1647)
- Nuno (1605)
- Duarte (1606)
- Dinis (1608-1650) - married Constança of Bragança (1610-1665)
- Garcia (1611-1680) - married Joana de Barcelos (1612-1681)
- Valdemar, Count of Guarda (1613-)
- Teresa (1614-)
- Constança (1617-)
- Maria (1618-)
- João, Count of Trancoso (1621-)
Notable actions - Continued Urraca's policies, and heightened military presence on India after a rise on piracy in the early 1640's. Duarte was also a patron of music and the arts, and a considerably sophisticated writer about music. In addition to this, he was a composer. During his reign he collected one of the largest libraries in the world. Among his compositions there is a setting of the "Crux fidelis".
Dinis III (1608-[1647-1650])Edit
- Spouse: Constança of Bragança (1610-1665) (married 1627)
- Heirs apparent: Valdemar (1647-1650)
- Valdemar (1634-1656)
Notable actions - aside for continuing his father's policies, his reign was not very remarkable.
- Spouse: Sancha Teles de Meneses (1635-1709) (married 1652)
- Heirs apparent: Garcia (1650-1656)
Notable actions - Starting his reign at 16, had as regent his mother for three months, to which point, his uncle Garcia IV, Duke of Viseu, became the regent, and stayed on in this position until 1652. Simão Viegas de Carvalhal's Os Lusíadas is dedicated to him, being printed in 1651.
Garcia II (1611-[1656-1680])Edit
- Spouse: Joana de Barcelos (1612-1680) (married 1632)
- Heirs apparent: Afonso (1656-1680)
- Joana (1633-)
- Afonso XI of Portugal (1634-1706) - Urraca Garcia de Sousa (1640-)
- Urraca (1637-)
- Maria (1639-)
- Nuno I, Lord of the Infantado (1643-)
Notable actions - Before his reign, he was Count of Trancoso, but with the death of Garcia III, Duke of Viseu, in 1638, Duarte gave the Duchy as an appanage to Garcia, which then gave the title of Count of Trancoso to his younger brother João, who, attempting to pursue a military career, had previously received no titles. In 1649, Garcia received the title of Duke of Ferrol, with the death of his brother-in-law Garcia II Álvares de Toledo, who had disinherited his nephew Fadrique III Álvares de Toledo, Marchess of Vilafranca do Bierzo, and chose to hand over the title to Garcia. Garcia eventually inherited the throne of Portugal with the death of his nephew Valdemar in 1656. Garcia eventually also received the Duchy of Guimarães in 1666 with the deatn of Dinis III, who had died childless. After becoming king, he bacame involved in a war with Aragon, which was started by his cousin, Fernando VI of Castille. The war was successful, ending with the vassalization of Aragon. With him having overlordship over all the Iberian kingdoms (except Navarra), Garcia II declared himself Emperor of Spain, although this title became almost secondary compared to his titles of King of Portugal. The House of the Infantado was created on his reign.