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List of Kings of France (Régime de l'Aigle)

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The Kings of France ruled from the establishment of Francia in 486. The first dynasty of France was the Merovingians, who ruled until 751. They were followed by the Carolingian, who ruled into the tenth century, although with interruption. Beginning in the late tenth century the Kingdom of France became increasingly elective, although usually controlled for a time by a select dynasty. This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French".

List of Emperors

Emperors before Hugh Capet

Merovingian dynasty (486–751)

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century CE. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c. 457 – 481 CE), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481–511 CE) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.

Portrait Name King From King Until Death Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Clovis 1er Clovis I
(Clovis Ier)
481 511 Likely died of natural causes aged 46. Buried at Abbey of St Genevieve until 18th century. Remains relocated to Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Childeric I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Tiers de sou d'or de Childebert Ier Childebert I
(Childebert Ier)
511 13 December 558 Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Clovis I King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Monnaie d'argent de Clotaire Ier Chlothar I the Old
(Clotaire Ier le Vieux)
13 December 558 29 November 561 Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of St. Medard, Soissons.  • Son of Clovis I
 • Younger brother of Childebert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Jean-Joseph Dassy (1796-1865) - Caribert, roi franc de Paris et de l'ouest de Gaule (mort en 567) Charibert I
(Caribert Ier)
29 November 561 567 Died aged 50. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chlothar I King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Portrait Roi de france Chilpéric roy de France Chilperic I
(Chilpéric Ier)
567 584 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chlothar I
 • Younger brother of Charibert I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)

King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)
Clothaire II 584 628 Chlothar II the Great, the Young
(Clotaire II le Grand, le Jeune)
584 18 October 629 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chilperic I King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
(595–629)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(613–629)
Tiers de sou or Dagobert Ier Dagobert I
(Dagobert Ier)
18 October 629 19 January 639 Died aged 36. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Chlothar II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Tiers de sous d'or de Clovis II Clovis II the Lazy
(Clovis II le Fainéant)
19 January 639 31 October 657 Died aged 20. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Dagobert I King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
Clothar III Chlothar III
(Clotaire III)
31 October 657 673 Died aged 21. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Clovis II King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(657–663)
Portrait Roi de france Childéric II Childeric II
(Childéric II)
673 675 Died aged 22. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Chlothar III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Theuderic III Theuderic III
(Thierry III)
675 691 Died aged 37.  • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Childeric II
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(687–691)
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Clovis III roi d'Austrasie en 691 (682-695) Clovis IV
(Clovis IV)
691 695 Died aged 13.  • Son of Theuderic III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert III 694 711 Childebert III the Just
(Childebert III le Juste)
695 23 April 711 Died aged 41. Buried at Church of St Stephen at Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne.  • Son of Theuderic III
 • Younger brother of Clovis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roi de france Dagobert II (i.e III) Dagobert III 23 April 711 715 Died aged 14.  • Son of Childebert III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roy de france Chilperic II Chilperic II
(Chilpéric II)
715 13 February 721 Died aged 49. Buried at Noyon.  • Probably son of Childeric II King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(719–721)
Theuderic IV Theuderic IV 721 737 Died aged 25.  • Son of Dagobert III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childerich and acceded to the throne.

Portrait Name King From King Until Death Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Jean Dassier (1676-1763) - Childéric III roy de France (754) Childeric III
(Childéric III)
743 November 751 Died aged 37.  • Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (751–888)

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty, which until then had ruled the Germanic Franks by right, was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.


Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Pépin the younger Pepin the Younger, the Short
(Pépin le Bref)
751 24 September 768  • Son of Charles Martel King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman Carloman I 24 September 768 4 December 771  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Image-Charlemagne-by-Durer Charlemagne (Charles I, the Great) 24 September 768 28 January 814  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(800–814)
Louis the Pious Louis I the Pious, the Debonaire
(Louis Ier le Pieux, le Débonnaire)
28 January 814 20 June 840  • Son of Charlemagne King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
CharlesIItheBald Charles II the Bald
(Charles II le Chauve)
20 June 840 6 October 877  • Son of Louis I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(875–877)
Louis II of France Louis II the Stammerer
(Louis II le Bègue)
6 October 877 10 April 879  • Son of Charles II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King Louis III Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman II of France Carloman II 5 August 882 6 December 884  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Sceau de Charles le gros Charles III the Fat
(Charles le Gros)
20 May 885 13 January 888  • Son of Louis the German
 • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 • Grandson of Louis I the Pious
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(881–887)

Robertian dynasty (888–898)

The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Odo of France Odo of Paris
(Eudes de Paris)
29 February 888 1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Elected king against young Charles III.
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (893–922)

Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Charles III, dit le simple, roi de France en 896 (879-929) Charles III the Simple
(Charles III le Simple)
28 January 893 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II
 • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Robertian dynasty (922–923)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Baldwin II of Constantinople Robert I
(Robert Ier)
30 June 922 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Younger brother of Odo
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Rudolph of France Rudolph
(Raoul de France)
13 July 923 14 January 936  • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 • Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (936–987)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis IV of France Louis IV of Outremer
(Louis IV d'Outremer)
19 June 936 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Lothaire-Face Lothair
(Lothaire de France)
12 November 954 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis V Louis V the Lazy
(Louis V le Fainéant)
8 June 986 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Kings of France

Capetian Dynasty (987–996)

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
King Hugh Capet
Hugh 941
-
996
987 24 October 996 Grandson of Robert I

Carolingian Dynasty

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Lothar1 karel
Charles IV 953
-
Otto I
-
1012
1012

Ramnulfid Dynasty

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
William I
-
William II
-

House of Ingelger

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Geoffrey I
-

Ramnulfid Dynasty

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
William III
-

House of Normandy

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
William IV
-
William V
-
Henry I
-

House of Blois

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Stephen I
-

House of Plantagenet

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Geoffrey II
-
Henry II
-

House of Capet

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Louis VI
-

House of Plantagenet

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Richard I
-
Charles V
-
Charles VI
-

House of Valois

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Charles VII
-
Philip I
-
John I
-

House of Évreux

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Charles VIII
-

House of Orleans

Image Name Life Election Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor
Louis VII
-
Charles IX
-


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