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List of Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire (The Once and Never Kings)

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Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head

The title of "Holy Roman Emperor" is supposed to denote the head of state of the Holy Roman Empire. In reality, however, the title is more symbolic, as many states would resist any attempt to assert dominance (this has been a frequent cause of civil wars in the past). Nowadays, the Emperor uses his position to mediate disputes between states, negotiate with foreign offices on behalf the smaller states, and help move Imperial legislation stalled in the Imperial Diet.

Many in the Holy Roman Empire claim a continuity between the current state, and the empire of Charlemagne, and the Regnal numbers are modified as such. Nevertheless, Emperors are counted separately from those who preceded Otto the Great.

While a coronation by the Pope was seen as a requirement for hundreds of years in order to be seen as legitimate, the practice fell into decline during the religious strife that was the Reformation. Indeed, papal coronation is prohibited under the terms of the Peace of Hamburg, which ended the Forty Years War. Since then, Emperor-elects have received their coronations from the Bishop or Archbishop of their choice (though the Archbishop of Münster [Lutheran] and Archbishop of Milan [Catholic] are common choices).

Titles

The title of "Holy Roman Emperor" is considered an umbrella title, as there are numerous subsidiary titles that pass from emperor to emperor. Some, like "King of Germany" are less titular or symbolic than others, like "King of Arles". Others are honorific Roman-styled titles, meant to provide some sort of continuity between the Holy Roman Empire and the old Roman Empire (ignoring the Byzantine Empire, which sometimes brings disagreements).

The full titles of the Holy Roman Emperor are as follows:

Latin: "Romanorum Imperator Augustus, a Deo ordinatus, rex Germaniae, rex Italiae, rex Arelatis, Ecclesiae defensor"

English Translation: "August Emperor of the Romans, Ordained by God, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of Arles, Defender of the Church"


the title of "King of Arles" was originally "King of Burgundy" but was changed at the behest of the Luxembourgs, who held that same title.

List of Emperors

# Monarch Portrait Life Dates of Rule Dynasty
1 Otto I

the Great

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor 23 November, 912 - 7 May, 973 962 - 973 Ottoian
2 Otto II Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor 955 - 7 December, 983 973 - 983 Ottoian
3 Otto III Ota3 980 - 23 January, 1002 983 (coronated 996) - 23 January, 1002 Ottoian
4 Henry II Jindra2 cisar 6 May, 973 - 13 July, 1024 7 June, 1002 - 13 July, 1024 Ottoian
5 Conrad II Konrád2 990 - 4 June, 1039 1024 - 4 June, 1039 Salian
6 Henry III Jindřich3Sálský 29 October, 1017 - 5 October, 1056 1028 - 5 October, 1056 Salian
7 Henry IV Jindra4Salsky 11 November, 1050 - 7 August, 1106 1053 - 7 August, 1106 Salian
8 Henry V Jindra5Salsky 8 November, 1086 - 23 May, 1125 6 January, 1099 - 23 May, 1125 Salian
9 Lothair III Lothaire III crop 9 June, 1075 - 4 December, 1137 1125 - 4 December, 1137 Supplinburg
10 Frederick I Frederick I HRE (The Kalmar Union) 1122 - 10 June, 1190 4 March 1152 - 10 June, 1190 Hohenstaufen
11 Henry VI JindrichVIStauf trun November, 1165 - 28 September, 1197 April, 1169 - 28 September, 1197 Hohenstaufen
12 Otto IV Ota4Brunsvik 1175 - 19 May, 1218 9 June, 1198 - 19 May, 1218 Welf
13 Fredrick II Frederick II and eagle 26 December, 1194 - 13 December, 1250 1215 - 13 December, 1250 Hohenstaufen
14 William I William I HRE (The Kalmar Union) February 1227 - 1275 3 October, 1247 - 1275 Holland
15 Rudolph I Rudolph I HRE (The Kalmar Union) 1 May, 1218 - 15 July, 1291 29 September, 1273 - 15 July, 1291 Habsburg
16 Adolf I Adolf HRE (The Kalmar Union) 1255 - 23 June, 1298 5 May, 1292 - 23 June, 1298 Nassau
17 Henry VII Henry Lux head 1275 - 24 August, 1313 27 November, 1308 - 24 August, 1313 Luxembourg
18 Louis IV Ludovico il Bavaro 1 April, 1282 - 11 October, 1347 20 October, 1314 - 11 October, 1347 Wittelsbach
19 Günther Guenther von schwarzburg 1304 - 14 June, 1349 30 January, 1348 - 14 June, 1349 Schwarzburg
20 Charles IV Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment 14 May, 1316 - 29 November, 1378 11 July, 1348 - 29 November, 1378 Luxembourg
21 Wenceslaus Wenceslaus I Luxem (The Kalmar Union) 26 February, 1361 - 16 August, 1419 10 June, 1376 - 16 August, 1419 Luxembourg
22 Sigismund Pisanello 024b 14 February, 1368 - 9 December, 1437 20 September, 1410 - 9 December, 1437 Luxembourg
23 John I Albrecht Achilles 17 August, 1413 - 21 July, 1453 18 July, 1435 - 21 July, 1453 Luxembourg
24 Albert Albert II of Germany 10 August, 1397 - 27 October, 1465 11 May, 1453 - 27 October, 1465 Habsburg
25 Frederick III Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005 21 September, 1415 - 19 August, 1485 2 February, 1463 - 19 August, 1485 Habsburg
26 Charles V JohannCicero1500 13 November, 1447 - 19 May, 1514 10 March, 1484 - 19 May, 1514 Luxembourg
27 John II Ludwig der Reiche 22 September, 1474 - 10 August, 1557 3 April, 1512 - 10 August, 1557 Luxembourg
28 Charles VI 18 June, 1497 - 14 October, 1565 29 July, 1558 - 14 October, 1565 Wittelsbach
29 Louis V 9 February, 1523 - 11 March, 1579 10 May, 1565 - 11 March, 1579 Wittelsbach
30 Ferdinand I 7 April, 1555 - 28 February, 1613 14 August, 1579 - 28 February, 1613 Habsburg
31 Ferdinand II 19 October, 1591 - 12 September, 1636 3 July, 1612 - 12 September, 1636 Habsburg
32 Charles VII 23 June, 1593 - 25 November, 1654 19 April, 1633 - 25 November, 1654 Habsburg
33 Leopold 14 January, 1598 - 11 May, 1669 27 June, 1651 - 11 May, 1669 Habsburg
34 John III King William III of England, (1650-1702) 2 July, 1633 - 18 March, 1672 14 June, 1669 - 18 March, 1672 Luxembourg
35 Ernst Augustus I 23 September, 1610 - 1 July, 1685 15 July, 1672 - 1 July, 1685 Wettin
36 Frederick IV 12 October, 1634 - 18 January, 1697 13 May, 1685 - 18 January, 1697 Wettin
37 Louis VI 12 April, 1662 - 16 March, 1737 25 February, 1697 - 16 March, 1737 Wittelsbach
38 Louis VII 19 August, 1696 - 17 May, 1753 10 February, 1736 - 17 May, 1753 Wittelsbach
39 Stephan 3 April, 1712 - 22 November, 1783 2 June, 1753 - 22 November, 1783 Visconti
40 William I 17 June, 1741 - 7 September, 1799 11 December, 1783 - 7 September, 1799 Hesse
41 Frederick V 3 August, 1758 - 11 January, 1832 29 September, 1799 - 11 January, 1832 Hohenzollern
42 Frederick VI 18 March, 1785 - 23 May, 1841 17 February, 1832 - 23 May, 1841 Welf
43 Frederick William 26 April, 1813 - 21 September, 1875 12 June, 1841 - 21 September, 1875 Hohenzollern
44 Charles VIII 9 August , 1845 - 27 July, 1904 27 October, 1875 - 27 July, 1904 Wettin
45 Maximilian 15 January, 1850 - 16 October, 1913 15 August, 1904 - 16 October, 1913 Habsburg
46 Rudolph II 12 February, 1894 - 29 June, 1943 4 November, 1913 - 29 June, 1943 Habsburg
47 John IV 5 September, 1899 - 14 August, 1953 3 August, 1943 - 14 August, 1953 Luxembourg
48 William II 17 May, 1923 - 8 March, 1998 13 September, 1953 - 8 March 1998 Württemburg
49 Francis JohannAlbrechtofMecklenburg 8 December, 1957 - 17 April, 1998 - Habsburg

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