The Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), also called the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, was a multilateral treaty signed in 1977 by the United States, France, and Oceania as part of an agreement not to conduct atmospheric, underwater or above-ground nuclear testing. It was meant dually to slow the ongoing arms race as well as prevent the further release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The impetus for the treaty was inspired by the unsuccessful Strategic Arms Limitation Talks between France and United States under Clyde Dawley as well as the nuclear attacks against Burmese positions by the Chinese in December 1976. The treaty, which had been under works for close to two years and had broad support in both the United States and Oceania, was fast-tracked shortly thereafter to include France and was opened in 1980 to signatories from other countries. The treaty was signed in October of 1977 by U.S. President Adam Eisler in a ceremony at the White House, before being signed the next month in Paris by Albert II. In early 1978, Oceanian Prime Minister John Suharto signed it in Sydney.

Today, all nuclear weapons states except for Japan have signed the LTBT, as well as other non-nuclear states. The LTBT was meant to be succeeded by a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty which as negotiated in 2003 and 2004 but never put into effect.

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