Libya, formally known as the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى ), is a socialist nation in northern Africa. It borders Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Niger, Chad, and Sudan.
Libya has had a very long history, being owned by Greece, Persia, Rome, and more. It has also played a pivotal role in the history of the Middle East, being both Christianized and Islamized. Under the command of Amr ibn al-'As, the Rashidun army conquered Cyrenaica, and a few years later in 647, an army led by Abdullah ibn Saad took Tripoli from the Byzantines. Fezzan was conquered 17 years later. The Berber tribes of Libya accepted Islam, however resisted Arab rule. Under the Aghlabid dynasty, Libya enjoyed considerable autonomy; however later the Shiite Fatimids took control of the entire regions. Parts of Libya were later conquered by the Ottomans in 1551, and Turgut Reis was named Bey of Tripoli. Fezzan also pledged allegiance to the Empire, however Cyrenaica never officially pledged their sovereignty to the Ottomans, though a Bey was stationed in Benghazi. Tripoli wasn't controlled much by the Ottoman government, and lapsed into anarchy and few deys survived for more than a year. In the early 19th century, numerous treaties of the Napoleonic Wars forced the Barbary states to give up piracy, causing Tripoli's economy to fall. As a result, civil war started in the area. Tripolitania gained some independence after the war, but due to instability the Ottomans later conquered the area once again.
After the Italo-Turkish War, lasting from 1911 to 1912, the Italians annexed Cyrenaica, Fezzan, and Tripolitania into colonies, often referred to just as Italian North Africa. From 1927 to 1934, the region was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania, run by Italian governors. In 1934, Italy adopted the name Libya, which was used by the ancient Greeks when referring to all of north Africa; excluding Egypt. In 1940, Italy entered World War II, and Libya became the setting of the North African campaign, which ended in Italian defeat. Afterwards, Libya fell under Allied occupation, with regions of the nation being administered by the British and French.
Libya gained independence as the United Kingdom of Libya in 1951, with a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris. Oil reserves were discovered in 1959, and petroleum sales enabled the poor Libyan nation to establish extreme wealth in the region. Despite Libya's growing wealth, resentment among some factions began and concentrated some of the nation's wealth. On September 1, 1969, a small group of officers led under army officer Muammar Gaddafi staged a coup d'état against King Idris, establishing Gaddafi's control over the nation.
From then on, Gaddafi was known as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and official Libyan press. On 2 March 1977, Libya changed its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The new "Jamahiriya" structure was referred to as "direct democracy", however the government never published election results. Libya's government is based on his The Green Book, published in 1975. Libya soared in wealth and became one of Africa's greatest nation, with a greater economy than that of Saudi Arabia. However, in the 1970s, Libya did start numerous wars and entered numerous conflicts, including but not limited to wars against Chad and Uganda. Libya remains under Gaddafi's rule to this day. It has the greatest economy in all of Africa and finances itself off of oil and trade with other Marxist and socialist nations around the world.
Libya's official government regime is the "Jamahiriya", though what categories it actually falls into are disputed. It is generally referred to as a dictatorship as Gaddafi has reigned over the nation for over 45 years. Political infighting is very uncommon due to Libya's massive wealth; and the tribal groups have generally managed to stay together well despite a short-lived Cyrenaican state did declare independence after the 2011 Arab Spring.