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The Legislative Council of Japan (リッポウイン [立法院] Rippō-in) is the national legislature of Japan. According to the Constitution of Japan, the Legislative Council exercises daily legislative function of the nation and some of National Congress functions and powers when the Congress in recess. The Legislative Council members elected from among the Congress members itself every one years.
The Legislative Council is held a regular meeting at least once a month in the left wing of National Congress Building, Tokyo, the national capital of Japan.
The election for the Legislative Council held every two years by the National Congress of Japan based on the principle of National Democracy. Every political group in Congress must elect their representatives to the Council following the proportional representation system. The political groups that gained more than three seats in the Congress can send at least 40% of the number of their seats to the Legislative Council.
According to the political convention in Japan, the election held by every political groups separately. Usually, the Nationalist Party uses two memberships system as the Party always has largest number of seats in the Congress. First, the “standing members”, are the Nationalist Congressmen who nominated directly by the Party and guaranteed to held the Legislative membership for whole four years. Second, the “rotating members”, are the other Congressmen who are not the "standing members" that rotated every one term of membership and determined by the random ballot held by the Party.
Meanwhile, another political groups simply use the random ballot system to rotate the Legislative membership among themselves. The Congressional leader of each political groups usually held the “standing membership” for their respective group. Every rotating members of Legislative Council not allowed to be re-elected again.
Functions and powers
According to the Constitution of Japan, the main functions of the Legislative Council are to formulate and to issue the state legislation (Article 41), to convene sessions of the Congress (Article 31), to formulate and to submit the bill of national budget to Congress (Article 42), and to receive the report from the Council of Ministers (Article 44).
The Council has the rights to appoint the members of National Court of Japan before being confirmed by Congress, to question the President of the Republic and other government officials (Article 43), and to monitor the duties of the Council of Ministers (Article 45, Line 1). If the Legislative Council find the Council of Ministers does not carry out its duties properly, the former can submit the proposal of motion of no confidence to the National Congress (Article 45, Line 2)