|Official Languages:||English, French, Spanish|
|Headquarters (Europe):||Geneva, Switzerland|
|Headquarters (America):||New York, United States|
|General Secretary:||Tony Blair|
|Chancellor:||Jose Manuel Barroso|
The League of Nations was founded in 1919, with its first meeting January 10, 1920. It was created to prevent wars, after the devastation of World War
Every nation is a part of the League of Nations, or it is not recognized as an independent nation.
The League of Nations enjoyed peace before World War II. Its first General Secretary was Sir James Eric Drummond, Earl of Perth. He served until 1933, when he resigned. Afterwards, the renowned fascist Joseph Avenol of France took over as General Secretary, serving until 1940. === World War II According to League regulations, the League could not interfere with a nation without its permission. Germany, under the rule of Führer Hitler, decided not to have the League interfere with their world conquest. The League did nothing, and any attempts to interfere were vetoed by General Secretary Avenol.
The Lester Reform
Joseph Avenol left office in 1940, putting Sean Lester into play. The Irish politician began working on reformation of the League. Immediately after he became General Secretary, Germany, Italy, and Japan removed themselves. However, President Roosevelt did ask Congress to join the League, and the motion approved. United States even replaced Italy as a permanent Council member (Soviet Union replaced Japan).
Sean Lester did many things to improve the General Secretary office. He created the Office of the Chancellor. The Chancellor would be the deputy to the General Secretary, taking over when the General Secretary could not. He also set an exact term limit (5-years, renewable once). He also banned the ability for League members to leave. The 1942 Treaty of London was signed by all League members, giving birth to a new League of Nations.
In addition, Sean Lester created the International Conference, to be held annually in September at a different nation and spot. This would allow the leaders to meet and discuss possible treaties. All Lester asked is that the head of state, head of government, or the foreign minister see all meetings.
Finally, Lester reformed the legislature. He kept the Council the same, but the Assembly improved so it was elected by legislatures only, and that it was based on population. He created Parliament, also based on population, elected by the citizens of that nation proportionally.
The League of Nations has three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative.
The executive branch is lead by the General Secretary and his or her Secretariat.
The legislative branch is the tricameral houses that are the Parliament, the Council, and the Assembly.
The judicial branch is the Permanent Court of International Justice.
The Secretariat is elected for a five-year term, renewable once, from either the America Group or Europe Group. The America Group consists of the Americas and Pacific. The Europe Group consists of Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Note that when African nations began arousing, it was in 1975 when they were first entered into a group. It was a huge debate.
The General Secretary is from one of the two Groups, as is the Chancellor. The General Secretary nominee chooses his Secretariat firsthand. Everyone elects the members of the Secretariat, the General Secretary, and the Chancellor, separately.
The General Secretary is elected through an electoral vote, i.e., when the majority of a nation elect someone, the entirety of that nations electors elect that person. There is one elector for each nation for each member they have in the legislature, so each nation has at least two Electors.
It is the General Secretary’s job to run the Secretariat, and be the executive of the League.
List of General Secretaries
|#||General Secretary||Term Began||Term Ended||Nationality||Chancellor|
|1||James Eric Drummond||1920||1933||British||None|
|3||Sean Lester||1940||1951||Irish||Trygve Lev|
|4||Dag Hammarskjold||1951||1953||Scandinavian||Gladwyn Jebb|
The League Council originally consisted of 4 permanent members and 4 non-permanent members. In 1946, it changed to 5 permanent members (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, China) and 15 non-permanent members (3 nominated by each permanent member to serve 3-year terms).
Councilors (members of the League Council) are chosen by the head of state.
The League Assembly consist of 1-5 Representatives, based on population. They elect a President of the Assembly for a one-year term, renewable three times.
The League Parliament consists of numerous Senators. Each nation gets 1 Senator, plus an extra Senator for each 10 million citizens.
Permanent Court of International Justice
The Permanent Court of International Justice has 15 justices, including a Chief Justice and a Vice-Chief Justice. Each justice is chosen by the General Secretary for a 15-year term, and the General Secretary of the time chooses of the justices to be Chief and Vice-Chief.