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The League of Corinth, also sometimes referred to as the Hellenic League during its initial formation (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC after the Battle of Chaeronea, as a means to organize and facilitate Greek military forces for his future war against Persia. The creation of the League of Corinth would mark the first time in history where most of the Greek states, with the notable exception of Sparta, managed to form a single political entity.
The League of Corinth was governed by the Hegemon, also known in the military sense as the strategos autokrator. In addition the Synedrion (council) and the Dikastai (judges) played a part in governing the league. Decrees of the league were issued in the cities of Corinth, Athens, Delphi, Olympia, and Pydna. The League also maintained a standing army which was levied from among its members, approximately proportionate to their overall size. Under Philip II the original League of Corinth also establish garrisons, commanded by phrourarchs, or garrison commanders, in the cities of Corinth and Thebes.
Treaty of the Common Peace
|“|| Oath. I swear by Zeus, Gaia, Helios, Poseidon and all the gods and goddesses. I will abide by the common peace and I will neither break the agreement with Philip, nor take up arms on land or sea, harming any of those abiding by the oaths. Nor shall I take any city, or fortress, nor harbour by craft or contrivance, with intent of war against the participants of the war. Nor shall I depose the kingship of Philip or his descendants, nor the constitutions existing in each state, when they swore the oaths of the peace. Nor shall I do anything contrary to these agreements, nor shall I allow anyone else as far as possible. But if anyone does commit any breach of the treaty, I shall go in support as called by those who need and I shall fight the transgressors of the common peace, as decided (by the council) and called on by the hegemon and I shall not abandon--------
of Thessalians--Elimiotes--Samothracians and Thasians---Ambraciots---from Thrace and---Phocians, Locrians
Oitaeans and Malians and Ainianes --and Agraeans and Dolopes---Perrhaebi---Zacynthus and Cephalenia.
Alexander's Campaigns and Death
After the assassination of Philip II in 336 BC, Philip was succeeded as King of Macedon by his son Alexander III. The league experienced a brief period of war, as the majority of its member states attempted to secede from the league, rebelling against Macedonian hegemony over much of the region of Greece. Alexander would successfully defeat the allied Greek states, reorganizing the league under his leadership. In 334 BC Alexander's forces and soldiers from the League of Corinth launched an invasion of the Persian Empire, before being stopped at the Battle of the Granicus, where Alexander III was killed.
After Alexander's death the league again collapsed into anarchy, as the member nations organized for war against Macedon. In the ensuing Lamian War the allied Greek city states found initial success, but were unable to decisively defeat the combined Macedonian forces of Hephaestion, Alexander's proclaimed successor, and Antipater, strategos of Europe and appoint regent hegemon of the league. Although the Greeks managed to maintain the upper hand against the Macedonians, war from Sparta in the Peloponnese threatened the stability and sovereignty of many of the allied states, and in 332 BC, the northern Greek states agreed to reestablish the League of Corinth in exchange for Macedon's aid in combating the Spartans.
After the defeat of the Spartans at Argos, Hephaestion chose to return north, hoping to secure his rule as king of Macedon. Antipater remained in the Peloponnese with a small force, earning the trust of the Greek city states against Sparta. That year peace was agreed upon between the League of Corinth and Sparta, with the League retaining Argolis and parts of Arcadia, with Sparta and its allies retaining the rest of the Peloponnese. Sparta would also be forced to pay a large sum of money, which helped to pay for the Macedonian army's past years at war. Although less desperately in need of funds, the lack of payment to Athens and other city states in turn deteriorated relations slightly, although the League of Corinth remained unified for the time being in its distrust for Sparta.
Macedonian Civil War
The question of who held power as hegemon eventually boiled over into a separate conflict; the Macedonian Civil War, again throwing the league into war, and forcing the member states of the league to pick sides in the conflict. It was widely recognized that Hephaestion should serve as the position, as the past kings of Macedon; Alexander III and Philip II before him had. At the same time, Hephaestion's rival and Macedonian general Antipater continued to act essentially as hegemon, with a loyal army under his command in Greece. Antipater derived this right from the belief that as strategos of Greece, and acting regent of Macedon under Alexander III, Antipater was to assume to rights and responsibilities of former hegemon Alexander. Finally in 328 BC, Antipater was killed, and the position of hegemon was decided to be associated with the throne of Macedon, however not before heavily weakening the League of Corinth internally.