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The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The principal participants of the war, which was fought from 1508 to 1516, were France, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice; they were joined, at various times, by nearly every significant power in Western Europe, including Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, the Duchy of Milan, Florence, the Duchy of Ferrara, and Swiss mercenaries.
Pope Julius II, intending to curb Venetian influence in northern Italy, had created the League of Cambrai, an anti-Venetian alliance that included, besides himself, Louis XII of France, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510 after the death of Julius.
The Veneto–Holy Roman alliance eventually expanded into the Holy League, which drove the French from Italy in 1512. Under the leadership of Leonardo I, the Venetians would, through their victory at Marignano in 1515, gain the territory of Milan; the treaties of Noyon and Brussels, which ended the war the next year, would expand the map of Italy.
The loss of papal foreign influence would directly result in the Papal Crusades.