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The Overseas Territory of Kwantung (Chinese: 關東領地 Guāndōng lǐngdì) is an overseas territory of Japan in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Qing Dynasty was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century. The territory included the militarily and economically significant ports of Lüshunkou and Dalian.
The name Kwantung, or Guāndōng (關東) in pinyin, means "east of Shanhai Pass", a reference to part of Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei Province, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. The name originally referred to all of Manchuria but later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the leased territory.
The National Congress of Japan passed the Kwantung Self-Government Law in June 4, 1932 and put into effect in December 14, 1932. The Law described Kwantung as "self-governed territory that politically, economically, militarily and judicially belong to the Japanese Realm, with have greater autonomy over its own internal matters", similar with the British rule of Hong Kong.
The Commissioner-General of Kwantung (關東主任專員 Guāndōng Zhǔrèn Zhuānyuán) is the representative of Government of Japan in Kwantung. The Commissioner-General was appointed by the National Congress of Japan every five years. The Commissioner-General was functioned to supervise the Kwantung government in executive, defense and financial matters.
The Legislative Council of Kwantung (立法評議 Lìfǎ Píngyì) serves as the legislature of dependency. The Council members were directly elected every four years. There are two big political parties in the Council that consecutively dominated the seat numbers: pro-Japanese Progressive Party and left-oriented Labour Party.
The Executive Council of Kwantung (行政評議 Xíngzhèng Píngyì) serves as the administrative body of Kwantung Government. It was consisted by a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and twelve Councillors that elected from and among the members of Legislative Council.
The High Court of Kwantung (高等裁判所 Gāoděng Cáipànsuǒ) is modeled after the National Court of Japan and served as the dependency's supreme judicature in charge of judicial matters and supervision and administration of lower courts. All of judges of the Court was appointed by the Legislative Council. Every Kwantung citizens were the subject of Japanese law and Kwantung placed under Japan's sphere of jurisdiction.