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The Guishuang were an aristocratic tribe of a lose confederation of Indo-Europeans in Xiyu. Driven west by the Xiongnu in the late 6th century, a chain reaction of tribal movements in response to the Kushans’ migrations west and south occurred and repeated as displaced tribes displaced tribes and then in turn again were displaced themselves.
By the late 8th century the Kushans under King Kujula Kadphises (r.780-830) had established themselves over the Greco-Bactrian kingdoms and the northern Indus Valley.
Vima Kadphises, expanded north and west, introducing gold coinage to India. [POD waves identified] He was killed in a dynastic struggle in 880(127).
Kanishka (r.880-883) was appointed by the nobility and set about structuring the state’s government; however he applied high taxes, and the nobles and vassal kings, who were becoming wealthy from trade, ended up not liking Kanishka, and deposed him in 883(130). He died peacefully in retirement in 899(146).
Shatakdra (r.883-905) was the Kushans’ greatest king in terms of territorial expansion. Elevated by the nobility, and the richest prince, he desired to secure control of all India, and, believing that Parthia would only weaken further, planned to then force Parthia into submission to him, not considering the current Roman-Parthian relations. In any case he set out in late 883(130) and by 900(147) he conquered all of the Indus valley, made the Ariaca Satraps official vassals, and took control of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Andrara Empire.
Shatakdra was successful, he was rich, but he had a bad personality. Various insults, slights, and generally annoying behaviours towards the other nobles led to his deposition in 903(150). Shatakdra would have nothing of it, and with his riches and armies rebelled against the nobels. He was the richest, but not more rich than the combined wealths of the aristocracy. In 905(152) he was defeated but managed to negotiate a house arrest retirement.
Shatakdra’s expansions immediately began drifting away from central control, starting at the eastern regions.
Khatna Behamar was appointed Kushan King, but the office of king was quickly dissolving in importance as the aristocracy had disliked strong centralising kings. By 914(161) The Kushan Empire was reduced to just the north-eastern Indus Valley, and In 933(180) as an empire it was gone altogether as India split and split, the income of princes jostled about by events to the west.