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Historically, the land was part of the Assyrian Empire, Sassanian Empire, various Caliphates, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and then, by Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey consequently. The independece of Kurdistan was possible by numerous factors like the fight between Kurdish nationalist groups and jihadist groups like ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria).
The defeat of ISIS, which is part of the fall of Islamism, and the role of the Kurdish Worker's Party and the Kurdish Democratic Party in it, paved the way for international callings for a Kurdish state. Finally, on April 27, 2046, affected by the Secular Revolution in the region, Kurdistan declared independence from Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey in the Congress of Erbil.
Today, Kurdistan is a regional power and an emergent world power. It has bilateral relations withnearly every country in the world
The Constitution of Kurdistan established a strict separation of powers.
- The Executive Power is in charge of a President elected or a four-year term that may be renewable once. The President signs or vetoes the laws approved by the Legislature, grants pardons and reprieves and appoints Supreme Judges. The President can only appoint one Judge per term.
- The Legislature Power is formed by the Kurdish People's Legislature, an unicameral legislature. Members of the Legislature (MLs) serve for unlimited two-year terms. The Legislature can approve presidential appointments, impeach the President and Supreme Court Justices and approve judicial appointments.
- The Judicial Power is composed by the Kurdish Supreme Court. Judges are appointed by the Executive Power and approved by a confidence vote in the Legislature. The Supreme Court, which is made up by seven judges determine the consitutionality of laws and presidential actions. Unlike the President and MLs, Supreme Court judges serve for life.
Kurdistan is home to a population of over 25 millions. Roughly 79% of the people are Native Kurds, the rest is made by other ethnic groups and foreigners.
Despite the fact that the Constitution declares "freedom from religion for the men and women of the nation of Kurdistan", 90% of the population is Muslim. 74% is Sunni and 16% is Shia. 5% are Christians, 2% are non-religious 1% are Jews (mostly immigrants) and the other 2% is made by Sikhs, Zoroastrianists, Baha'is, etc.
Kurdistan is one of the most, if not, the most proggresive country in the Middle East. Along with Israel, is the only country that performs and recognizes same-sex marriages. Usually, the marriages are performed by local judges and religious organizations can deny marriage to a same-sex couple.
Kurdistan also has free and compulsory K-12 education, based on an US-like structure. Higher education while not complusory and free, is heavily subsidized.
The country is currently debating universal healthcare.