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The Kuban People's Republic (Кубанская Народная Республика) was a state briefly established by the Kuban Cossacks in 1917, lasting until 1918. During the Russian Civil War, the People's Republic was absorbed by the Provisional All-Russian Government, as agreed at the Conference of Tsaritsyn by White leaders.
During the Russian Empire, the region of the Kuban was a Cossack territory. Like many similar provinces, its demographics constituted several differences from ordinary Russian governorates (guberniyas). The western regions belonged to the descendants of the Black Sea Cossack Host from Ukraine in 1792. The southern and eastern regions were made from the Caucasus Line Cossack Host, descendants of the Don Cossacks.
Historically, the Kuban Cossacks were formed to guard the Russian borders from the Mountain peoples which caused the Caucasus War that lasted for six decades up until 1860. In addition, during many wars, Cossacks sent large army contingents to fight alongside the Imperial Russian Army; moreover it was the Kuban Cossacks that made the Tsar's personal bodyguard. In return for such loyalty, they lived free from taxes in a semi-independent way with various privileges. The military nature of their lifestyle was also mirrored in the administration of the region, where stanitsa settlements were in place of traditional Russian villages, and had much more autonomy such as the election of a local Ataman, or commander.
However, during the reforms of Tsar Alexander II, the pacified Kuban Oblast was heavily invested in and extensive peasant migrants from Russian, Armenian and Ukrainian provinces migrated to cultivate the land. The question of land ownership caused extensive friction between the peasants and the Cossacks, and often resulted in the latter's action to ensure its ownership.
Existence of the state
The Kuban National Council declared an independent state in late November 1918. The state was only recognized by another Cossack nation that was recently declared, the Don Republic. The People's Republic did not accomplish much during it's one month or so of existence, before the Kuban Cossacks joined the White movement in the Russian Civil War. At the Conference of Tsaritsyn, it was determined that the Kuban People's Republic would be dissolved and absorbed into the newly formed Provisional All-Russian Government, and Kuban Cossacks fought for it in the Russian National Army during the civil war.