Korea (officially, People's Republic of Korea), is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by China to the north and west, Japan to the east, and the East China Sea to the south.
After the Japanese defeat in Great Pacific War, Korea came under tutelage of the Joint Allies Administration of Korea (JAAK) integrated by China, FSR, USA and ICF. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (in exile) and the People's Liberation Committee of Korea, created on the Japanese retreat from the Korean Peninsula, became the basis provisional government of the PR of Korea by a common agreement with the JAAK (Democratic and Republican Liberation Bloc).
A constitutional assembly was elected in 1947 with the task of redacting a new constitution to be approved by referendum, function has legislative body, elected executive authorities that replace the provisional government and negotiate peace terms with Japan.
Peace and diplomacy with Japan
The terms of peace or settlement (the first employed by Koreans and the latter by Japanese) of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and Korea of 1947 normalized diplomatic relations between the two states. It confirmed that all treaties or agreements concluded between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of Korea on or before August 22, 1910 are already null and void. It recognized the nationalization of Japanese property and land in Korea with no compensation, as war and occupation payment. War crimes are to prosecuted by Korea and the Allied Council, in exchange Japan can establish investigation bureaus to prosecuted political and military responsibilities of Japanese citizens during the retreat and evacuation from Korea. It established a population exchange supervised by the International Refugee Organization (IRO) until 1952 in favor of Japanese citizens living or settled in Korea.
According to the Constitution of the PR of Korea, all political power and sovereignty comes from the people. It is exercised by means of elections of the political powers specified by the Constitution and by referendum and recall. All male and female citizens over 18 years of age have political rights.
At national level, based on the Chinese Five-power Constitutional theory, the State is organized as follows.
- The head of state and government is the President of the Republic, who is elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. Formerly he was elected by the National Assembly. The president is Commander-in-Chief of the armed force of Korea and enjoys considerable executive powers.
The President performs his executive functions through the State Council made up of 15 to 30 members and presided over by the President, who is solely responsible for deciding all important government policies. The President appoints the Prime Minister for State Affairs with approval of the National Assembly and the rest of the members of the State Council.
The president may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the National Assembly). In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the President may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order." Emergency measures may be taken only when the National Assembly is not in session and when there is no time for it to convene. The measures are limited to the "minimum necessary."
- The legislative powers resides in the National Assembly, whose members are elected for a four-year term. The assembly cannot be dissolved by the president.
- Judicial powers resides in the National Judicial Council, Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, lower and specialized courts. The Chief Judges of the National Judicial Council are appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly for a six year term. The judges of the Supreme Court are named by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice and with the consent of the National Assembly for a six year term. The judges of the Constitutional Court are named by the President (3 members), National Assembly (3) and National Judicial Council (3). All lower and specialized courts of justice are appointed by the National Judicial Council, that also are the ministers the judicial branch.
- Board of Audit and Inspection, in charge of inspecting and examining the revenues and expenditures of the State, the accounts of the State and other organizations specified by Act and the job performances of the executive agencies and public officials. The Board is composed is composed of five to eleven members. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly for a term of office of four years. The rest of the members of the Board are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Chairman of the Board, for a term of four years.
- Civil Service Board is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants, holding of examinations and in in charge of matters relating to employment, registration, performance rating, scales of salary (remuneration), promotion and transfer, security of tenure, recommendation, pecuniary aid in case of death, retirement and old age pension. The Board is integrated by a chairman, a vice chairman, and 9 ministers, each with a six-year term of office. The chairman and vice chairman are appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly for a term of office of six years. The ministers are appointed by the Board of Audit and Control (3 members), National Assembly (3) and National Judicial Council (3).
Politics of Korea
Three parties main that participated in the first elections where:
- Korean National Advancement Party (KNAP), setup by former members of the cooperating agencies of occupied Korea;
- Korean Independence Party (KIP), right-nationalists; and
- Korean National Revolutionary Party (KNRP), left-nationalism, and pro-Chinese. The KIP and KNRP, were the basis of the Government in exile.
Of relative importance and more below provincial level and local elections is the Chondoist Chongu Party, the political vehicle of Cheondoism.
Korea is divided in provinces,
After the liberation the Korean Liberation Army and Korean People's Army (KPA) were merged in the PRK Defense Forces. It is organized in the following branches:
- Korean Army
- Korean Navy
- Korean Air Force
- Korean Marine Corps
- Korea Coast Guard
Internal law and order is in charge of the National Korean Police Agency.