The Kingdom of Korea (한국 의 왕국) is a sovereign state in eastern Asia. It only borders one country, those being Manchuria.
Gojoseon was the first Korean kingdom, located in the north of the peninsula and southern Manchuria. Later, the state of Jin would appear in the south of Korea. The founding legend of Gojoseon, which is recorded in the Samguk Yusa and other medieval Korean books stated that Korea was founded in 2333 BCE by Dangun, who descended from heaven; while it hasn't been proven it did help develop Korean national identity. The historical Gojoseon kingdom was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. Nothing much is known about the southern state of Jin, though it did establish relations with China and Japan. After Gojoseon collapsed, many smaller states appeared such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, Goguryeo and Baekje. Later, the time of the Three Kingdoms would start, referring to Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla. Goguryeo reached its zenith in the 5th century, when numerous effective kings expanded the country into nearly all of Manchuria, parts of Inner Mongolia, and annexed Seoul from Baekje. Goguryeo would fall at the hands of China, facing off against both the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, numerous wars with China exhausted Goguryeo and it fell into a weak state. After internal power struggles, it was conquered by allied Silla-Tang forces in 668. Baekje was also defeated in this way as well, however earlier in 660. According to legend, the kingdom of Silla began with the unification of six chiefdoms of the Jinhan confederacy by Bak Hyeokgeose in 57 BC, in the southeastern area of Korea. It had a strategic position near the Pacific, and later emerged as a sea power which destroyed Japanese pirates. During this period, long-distance trade between the Caliphate was documented by Persian geographers. Buddhist monasteries such as the Bulguksa temple and Seokguram Grotto are examples of advanced Korean architecture and Buddhist influence. Silla began to experience political troubles in late 8th century. This severely weakened Silla and soon thereafter, descendants of the former Baekje established Hubaekje. In the north, rebels revived Goguryeo, beginning the Later Three Kingdoms period. The kingdom of Goryeo was founded in 918 CE and became the ruling dynasty of Korea. "Goryeo" was named as Wang Geon deemed the nation as a successor of Goguryeo. The nation fell in 1392, and is the source of the English name Korea. In 1231 the Mongols conquered Goryeo. When the Yuan dynasty declined in the 1350s, Goryeo regained independence.
The Joseon dynasty was founded after the fall of Goryeo, named in honor of the ancient Gojoseon dynasty. Internal conflicts within the royal court, civil unrest and other political struggles plagued the nation in the years that followed. From 1592 to 1598, Japan invaded Korea, though was repelled by the Korean military with assistance from China. As it was trying to rebuild itself, Korea then faced invasion from the Manchu. A period of peace followed in the 18th century during the years of King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo, who led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty, with fundamental reforms to ease the political tension between the Confucian scholars, who held high positions. However, social unrest prevailed in the years after, causing numerous wars and revolts. The government greatly reformed in the 19th century, though its isolationism gave it the nickname "Hermit Kingdom".
As a result of the Sino-Japanese War, Korea gained official independence from the Qing, who had made Korea a tributary state. In 1897, Joseon was renamed the Korean Empire, and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. The imperial government aimed to become a strong and independent nation by implementing domestic reforms, strengthening military forces, developing commerce and industry, and surveying land ownership. After the Russo-Japanese War, Korea fell under the influence of the Russian Empire, spreading Eastern Orthodoxy to the nation and spreading Russian culture. Korea had a small role in the World War; with Russian help the Koreans were able to suppress a Japanese invasion, though overall Korea lost the war. After the fall of the Russian Empire, and rise of Marxism in the region, Marxist armies rose in Korea and proclaimed the Korean Soviet Socialist Republic. Korea was annexed by Japan after the Pacific War and was liberated with the help of the Korean Liberation Army during the Japanese Imperial War. Korea is now a prosperous, democratic state with a large tech industry.