The history of the Australian Aborigines stretches back millennia. But the idea of a union of tribes was only a recent invention. Before the Koori Union there had only been one attempt to form a union of Aborigine tribes, taking place in 1631, over thirty years before the Koori union was formed. However, this attempt to form a union was almost doomed to fail from the start. The leader of the Pitjantjatjara tribe, the largest Australian Aborigine tribe of the time, had sent out a number of emissaries to request the presence of as many Aborigine tribal leaders as possible. However, only a portion of these emissaries reached their intended targets as many succumbed to disease, exhaustion, starvation, and attacks from Australia's predators. These low survival odds are now understood to be down to the huge distances that many of these emissaries had to cover, and the language barriers with local Aborigine tribes preventing them from getting suitable aid for what ailed them. Those that did make it to their destinations were also not all successful. Many failed to relay their leader's message, as they could not communicate with the local tribe, whereas others were met with extreme violence due to some forgotten past conflict. Those tribal leaders that agreed to attend the meeting were also not all capable to do so, as the distance between the chosen meeting place and the tribes were also often vast. Eventually, the tribal leaders who wished to attend and could also attend arrived at the meeting. At this point the leader of the Pitjantjatjara presented the colonists of the former colony of Von Bismark, who were assimilated into the Aboriginal group of Watjarri at this point, to the gathering. These colonists are now known to be the ancestors of the fair skinned Aborigines who told Karmai Allunga the stories of the far away foreign nations and peoples with unbelievable technology, which was the basis for the formation of the Koori Union. The Von Bismark colonists then showed multiple examples of weapons and armour recovered from their former colony. In terms of what weapons and armour was shown, this is unknown. The Von Bismark colonists then went onto explain the dark expansionist aims of the nations to the north, and how it could lead to the persecution and extermination of the Aborigine people. It is known that the tribal leaders in attendance were shocked by this, and believed that a union was the right choice to increase their chances of survival. However, it was an unfortunate realisation that caused this union to never take place. The tribal leaders in attendance had come from various tribes dotted across the continent, with each tribe being some distance from the nearest other tribe in attendance. So when the vote on union came, it was defeated by a slight margin. The tribal leaders returned to their lands and as time went on and no grand enemy appeared, they soon forgot about the danger. To this day Kooris debate what the formation of this union would have meant for the Aborigine people, and whether or not it could have stopped the arrival of the approaching darkness.
Formation Of The Union
The Koori Union was formed in 1663 with the original five tribes. The tribal leader of the Wiradjuri Aborigine tribe sent emissaries to the nearby tribes of Wongaibon, Wailwan, Kamilaroi, and Bigambu. These emissaries invited the tribe's leaders to a tribal gathering at Wiradjuri's capital of Wagga Wagga. It was due to their close geographical proximity and the deep cultural ties that had resulted due to this, that all four of the tribal leaders were both able to and decided to attend. Wiradjuri's tribe leader, the war hero Allunga, explained the reason for the gathering. He detailed his meetings with fair-skinned Aborigines of a nearby tribe, who had told him grand stories passed down by their fathers, of groups far away with unrivalled technology, and their dark goals of expansion and extermination. The gathering was initially reluctant to believe such wild stories, but Allunga had prepared for this. He had known this disbelief would come, and as a result had taken steps to gather evidence to prove his claims. Allunga unveiled a rusting metal cuirass and placed it at the centre of the gathering, before the four tribal leaders. He explained how he had come about such an odd item. In the weeks leading up to the meeting he had sent a scout of his tribe to try to find the truth of these stories, and how said scout had returned telling of a rotting settlement on the nearby coast long since abandoned, and gave him the cuirass now before them. The scout had told Allunga about how he had found the cuiress covering the bones of one of the settlement's long dead inhabitants. At this moment both the hearts and minds of the four tribal leaders began to race. Both in fear and trepidation of what Allunga would say next. Allunga stood, and stated that the danger could mean the end of their people, and that they should stand together to defend themselves. He proposed the creation of a union, the Koori Union, to be formed out of the lands and peoples of the five tribes in attendance. He explained how this union would be led by the five tribal leaders in attendance, in the form of the Tribal Council, with one of them elected as Karmai, or leader of the union. The tribal leaders now each contemplated their decision. It was the fear of the outsiders, cultural similarities between the tribes, the trust that had been built up during times of allied conflict, and the size and power of the Wiradjuri tribe, that lead the tribal leaders to accept and the Koori Union to be founded. For his work in revealing the oncoming danger, and his ability to rally Aborigines, that the tribal leaders chose to elect Allunga as the first Karmai of the Koori Union. In the following weeks they returned to their lands and explained to their people why this great change had taken place, and soon began preparations for the future.
The First Grand Expansion
The First Grand Expansion is a phrase used to describe the period over the next decade where the Koori Union expanded its membership, and as result the lands and people under its banner. The Koori Union had existed for little more than five years when the expansion began. These five years had seen the Koori Union become a stable nation state, and proved the efficiency of its governance. The cultures and customs of the original tribes had become extremely similar, with many being practically identical at this point. This period of stability led to Karmai Allunga, who still resided as leader of the union due to his capability as a leader, to extend an offer of integration to a number of nearby tribes. These nearby tribes had fought alongside and traded with the original tribes of the Koori Union for years, and as a result had a number of historical and cultural ties with them. Karmai Allunga due to this sent emissaries to the Aborigine tribes of Barunggam, Mandandanji, Kooma, Muruwari, and Barranbinya, inviting their tribal leaders to meet with Karmai Allunga and the Tribal Council at the Koori Union's capital of Wagga Wagga. The relatively short journey for the invited tribal leaders is made easily without any documented incidents. Upon their arrival, Karmai Allunga explained his offer of integration to them. He explained the reasons for the founding of the Koori Union, and the benefits integration into the union will bring. The invited tribal leaders, after hearing Karmai Allunga's reasoning, agreed to integration into the union. This increased the Tribal Council to nine total members, and as a result the Tribal Council agree that a Karmai vote must be called. After much debate, it was decided that Karmai Allunga should remain the Karmai. At this point the now integrated tribal leaders returned to their tribes, and in a similar way to the original tribal leaders, passed on the information about this great change to their peoples. It was five years later, when the Koori Union had existed for over a decade, that the expansion continued. The nation's stability had once again increased, and now was a significantly more stable area than the surrounding unaligned Aborigine tribes. The languages and cultures of the member tribes had now become practically indistinguishable. Early in the year Karmai Allunga passed peacefully in his sleep, and as a result the leader of the Wiradjuri tribe became his son Apurta. The death of the Karmai lead to the Tribal Council being called, and in the resulting vote, the leader of the Kamilaroi tribe, Bardo, was elected Karmai. Karmai Bardo's first act was to cement the nation's capital Wagga Wagga in its current position, and to build permanent dwellings. This is seen as the true beginning for the Koori Union's first capital city. A number of older tribal leaders questioned Karmai Bardo for the reasoning behind this change, with most being displeased about leaving their nomadic ways. He stated that scouting of the decaying settlement of Von Bismark on the nearby coast had shown that the dwellings were meant to be permanent. He continued that to stand a chance to survive the approaching darkness, that the Koori Union must learn to emulate this. This reasoning appeased the minds of the Tribal Council. Near the end of the year an emissary arrived at Wagga Wagga and requested council with Karmai Bardo and the Tribal Council. When presented, he stated that he represented a grouping of small tribes on the nearby eastern coast, who came together to request integration into the Koori Union, as they heard the stories of the approaching darkness, and feared that by being on the coast, and standing alone, that they would be the first to be enveloped by it. Karmai Bardo, after considering the benefits of expanding the Koori Union to the coast, and whether or he could live with abandoning these tribes after the work of Karmai Allunga, accepts their request. As a result the tribes of Waka Waka, Gubbi Gubbi, Badtjala, Yuggera, Ngarabel, Bundjalung, Gumbainggin, Biripi, Daingatti, and Nganyaywana joined the Koori Union. A permanent village was set up on the coast of the Koori Union in the lands of the Yuggera under the same logic as cementing the position of Wagga Wagga, and was named Jagera (OTL Brisbane), after the name of the tribal subgroup that resides there. This village quickly grew, and became a significant trading hub with a number of tribes to the north.
Acceptance Of Sovereignty
The Koori Union's acceptance of sovereignty is seen as a gradual process. This is due to diplomatic relations taking time as a result of the vast distances between the Koori Union and other states, and also because the meeting of previously undiscovered states took place apart from each other. This period begins when the second group of coastal tribes requests entrance into the Koori Union. Karmai Bardo at the beginning of this period created the position of Gamarada, the leader of defensive forces in the Koori Union, and the Tribal Council had elected the leader of the Waka Waka tribe, Daku, into this position. Gamarada Daku had begun organising the tribal forces of the Koori Union into a single fighting force, when the emissary of the coastal tribes arrived requesting integration into the Union. Karmai Bardo called the Tribal Council and allowed the emissary to present their reasons for wishing integration. These reasons included their fear of foreigners, their position on the coast, and the recent integration of other nearby coastal tribes into the Union. Karmai Bardo, who was initially reluctent to allow admission for further tribes into the Union so quickly, decides to accept due to the tribes small sizes, and as a result integration and assimilation should be a relatively swift process. As a result the tribes of Waveroo, Gunai, Jaitmatang, Bidwell, Ngarigo, Yuin, and Ngunawal joined the Koori Union. Following this a permanent settlement was set up in the lands of the Ngunawal and was named Kambera (OTL Canberra), and began to grow. The settlements of Wagga Wagga and Jagera also both grew to an extent where they could be classified as towns in this same period. Wagga Wagga also boasted the largest population of Australian Aborigines in any settlement on the continent. Following this the Koori Union expanded down the eastern coast of Australia. A permanent settlement was set up along this route in a resource rich bay area, and was named Cadi (OTL Sydney), this settlement encouraged travel along this stretch of Koori land. The following year the Koori Union expanded down the east coast again, and in doing so a peninsula on the coast of a strait was colonised along with a nearby bay. On the coast of this bay a permanent settlement was set up to take advantage of the substantial fish stocks and other resources. This settlement was named Kulin (OTL Melbourne) and began to grow at a similar rate to all the other Koori Union settlements. A number of Koori fishermen reported seeing two small islands to the south of Kulin in the strait. Word of this traveled to Karmai Bardo, whose health had begun to falter recently, and he requested that a number of small Koori watercraft were built to investigate these islands. Gamarada Daku began to organise the tribal forces of the Koori Union into the Koori Yung. This new fighting force was going to be under the control of the Karmai. It was expected that the force would be completed within a five year period. The creation of the settlements of Kulin and Cadi lead to large amounts of Koori movement and trade along the eastern coast of Australia. It was also in this same year that a scouting team was sent to the Aborigine sacred site of Uluru, with the hope of forming a Koori enclave there so that it could be protected from any outside forces. The SOC officially opened up relations with the Koori Union this year and began to ask for a number of diplomatic deals. The Karmai, overjoyed that peaceful contact had been made, offered a deal. In return for: weapons, armour, and ammunition, supplies and food aid, a number of large ships and training for piloting said ships, training in metal working, ship building, and advanced combat tactics, and advisors and translators who would help modernise the Koori Union. The Karmai offered: a trade deal, an alliance between the two states, and the acceptance of Hindu missionaries into the Koori union. Orissa's SOC found the deal very accpetable. Although they requested an exclusive trading pact to protecttheir ship building techniques. The Koori Union accepted this addition and the deal was formalised. Gamarada Daku continued to form the Koori Yung, with a number of contingents being successfully organised. Trade and movement up and down the eastern coast of Australia continued to grow. Karmai Bardo passed in this year due to his ill health, and in the ensuing Tribal Council, the leader of the Wailwan tribe, Gelar, was elected Karmai. The scouting party sent to investigate the site of Uluru returned, and informs Karmai Gelar that the site could be turned into a Koori enclave as long as the Pitjantjatjara tribe is dealt with. As a result the Koori Yung contingents that had been organised began preparing for the journey to take the area. The SOC returned to the Koori Union with many of their capable advisors, translators, and missionaries. Among these advisors are the military advisors promised, as well as muskets and ammunition, to which the advisors would train the Kooris in their use. The SOC also offers to help build modern ports in return for a share of profits from said ports. Karmai Gelar spent the ensuing months with his advisors drawing up a suitable deal. This was around the same time that the Vicar-General of the Primatial City of Magdeburg disembarked from his ship and traveled with his priestly entourage to meet with Tribal Council. His knowledge of the local language was non-existent. However, he and his priests were fluent in some of the Western Aborigine languages. Upon the arrival of the entourage the Tribal Council requested an alliance, and in return offered to allow a number of Aborigine Catholic priests into the Koori Union under Koori control, and the building of churches to house them in the Koori settlements. The Vicar-General accepted this deal and returned to his own lands. The Koori Yung contingents formed last year began to be trained in the use of muskets, becoming familiar with the use of paper cartridges, and learning how to make their own from the Orissan military advisors. These contingents were also armoured with the steel plate armour provided from Orissa. However, only the chest, shin and forearm plates were used so that they could maneuver effectively and the Koori fighting style was preserved. These contingents were then sent by Karmai Gelar on the journey towards Uluru with the goal of securing it. The Koori Union accepts the offer to build joint ports in the settlments of Cadi, Jagera and Kulin. In return for this they offered a 40% percentage of all profits from the ports. Something which Orissa readily accepts. More ammunition and muskets were sent along with more military advisors as a sign of improving relations. The Orissan missionaries were provided aid to set up Hindu temples in the Koori Union's settlements as promised. A number of small Koori watercraft were completed on the south coast of Australia and launched to investigate the two islands spotted in the previous years. The SOC spotted some of these watercraft, and promised to help build better ships once port facilities were completed. The small Koori watercraft finally landed on the two islands south of Kulin after many false starts caused by bad weather. They found that the islands were inhabited by indigenous people not unlike themselves, and that there were plentiful fish stocks in the surrounding waters. The group's respective leaders decided that instead of trying to return to the mainland, they shall expand the Koori Union's lands, and take advantage of the resources on the islands. As a result on each island a small area was brought under Koori control, A few of the watercraft were launched back towards the mainland to report this decision to the Tribal Council. The Koori Yung contingents finally arrived at the sacred site of Uluru and began the war to defeat the Pitjantjatjara Tribe using advanced weaponry provided by Orissa. They aimed to exile the tribe's current leaders and integrate the tribe into the Koori Union as a member tribe enclave. The Koori Yung was finally organised and became the formal army for the Koori Union the same year. All of its contingents were now trained with the use of muskets, armour, and paper cartridge manufacturing by the Orissan military advisors. The Koori ports continued to be built with a massive push by Orissan workers. However something was beginning to claim lives around the ports, and many started looking at the Orissan's as the cause. The following years saw what is now considered both the modernisation of the Koori people, and the breaking of many previous ties. It is often debated whether or not the Koori superstitions cost them greatly during this period, and whether they had given up such beliefs that this modernisation could have been boosted or expanded.
Meeting Of Two Peoples
Post Unification Culture
The position of Karmai acts as both head of the Koori Union and head of the Tribal Council. It was created when the Koori Union was formed by the original five tribes in 1663. The first individual to hold the position was Karmai Allunga of the Wiradjuri tribe, who was responsible for the first Tribal Council, and is seen as the founding father of the Koori Union. He held the position until his death in 1674.
|Allunga||Wiradjuri||1663 - 1674|
|Bardo||Kamilaroi||1674 - 1676|
|Gelar||Wailwan||1676 - ?|
The Tribal Council acts as the governing body for the Koori Union, with the Karmai as its head. It was created alongside the formation of the Koori Union in 1663. It began with only five tribal leaders making up the Tribal Council. Karmai Allunga was elected as the first Karmai of the Tribal Council. As more tribes have joined the Koori Union the Tribal Council has expanded, and as a result a number of different Aborigine languages are now used when the council is in session.
At the current moment of time the Koori Union has the following tribes as members. At this point no tribe has requested permission to leave the union. There has been one instance of a group of or a singular tribe requesting integration into the union. At present the Koori Union could be categorised as the largest Aborigine tribe of Australia.
Orissa - Peaceful contact has been made between the Kooris and Orissans. The Koori Union and Orissa are now in an alliance and have a highly profitable trade deal. They are also largely responsible for the modernisation of the Koori Union.d.dd
Primatial City of Magdeburg - Responsible for the conversion of significant numbers of Aborigines to Christianity, and as a result turning them away from traditional beliefs. Whilst also attempting to replace the various Aborigine languages with German. However, they have shown no hostile action and the Koori Union wishes to improve relations.
France - Explorers for the nation of France have been sighted in the lands of various Aborigine tribes without permission, and as a result a number of tribes are considering turning hostile. However, they have not entered the lands of the Koori Union, and as a result the Karmai and Tribal Council wish to make peaceful contact to open diplomatic relations.
At this moment no nations are classified as having negative relations with the Koori Union.
War For Uluru - This war took place over the course of five years between the Koori Union and the Pitjantjatjara tribe. It was fought over control of the Dreamtime sacred site of Uluru, something which was seen as key to the future of the Dreamtime religion. The Koori Yung fielded multiple contingents armed with weaponry from Orissa, with Orissan military advisors under the control of the Gamarada in command of battle strategy. The Koori Union achieved victory, and the lands of the Pitjantjatjara tribe were used to form the State of Uluru.