Spain has been long known for it's colonial domination of South America and status as an economic and trading power during the Cold War. The Spanish Kingdom in its current form came to be as a result of the Treaty of Leon in 1831, which outlined a liberal monarchy that answered to a Parliament.
The Spanish colonial empire was shattered around 15 years prior after many British and American backed coups overthrew their Spanish masters, with Patagonia and the Philippines joining the Brits. While Cuba, Puerto Rico and other Caribbean possessions were handed over to Mexico after the signing of the Treaty of Havana in 1814. Other nations that gained independence later unified (Especially Gran Colombia and the Andean Union). Other nations also gained territory from the Portuguese after various border skirmishes forced them to give up territory in Guyana.