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The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија or Kraljevina Srbija) is country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe.
It borders with Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania.
After the Third Balkan War it became the Republic of Serbia.
World War I and Peace
Serbia allied itself with the Central Powers (German and Ottoman empires). In May 1915 it declared the war on Austria-Hungary and proceed to occupy greater part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This event marked the start of World War I. However Serbia was incapable of sustaining positions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and had to retreat after a major offensive of Austria-Hungary and Italy. During the War the Kingdom of Montenegro voted for its integration with Serbia.
At the end of the war in 1920, by the Treaty of Ravenna it received lenient terms of peace. The allied powers also accepted the annexation of the Kingdom of Montenegro.
The explanation for the peace terms are in two reasons It was more useful for the Allies that the Kingdom of Serbia functioned has a buffer state and a trustful anti-Russian ally in the Balkans. And Austria-Hungary was worried of the possible consequences of sympathies for crippled and injured Serbia among its South Slavic population (Croatians, Bosnian and Serbs) within its frontiers.
Government of Serbia
According to the Constitution of 1903, the Kingdom of Serbia is a parliamentary and constitutional monarchy. The Kingdom is a centralized and unitary State. The right of suffrage is exercised by every male Serbian citizen who is 21 years of age and pays a national tax.
- the King is the Head of State. He appoints the President of the Ministerial Council.
- The President of the Ministerial Council is the Head of Government. He and the members of the Council of Ministers are responsible before the National Assembly.
- The legislative and constituent power resides in the National Assembly of Serbia, an elected unicameral body. It consists of 160 deputies elected for four years.
The main political parties are: People's Radical Party, Serbian Progressive Party, Serbian Social-Democratic Party, Communist Party of Serbia and National People's Party. A small Peasant Party was founded in 1921.
The main distinction in Serbian politics have been Left or Right faction and Federalism or Centralization. the last one not necessarily associated with Serbianisation. Regardless of internal political divisions there have been also groups that have promoted collaboration with Austria-Hungary (pro Austria-Hungary faction) or an independent diplomacy (Pro-Serbian and Balkan factions).
Territoriality Serbia is divided in districts (okrug) and municipalities (opštine). Each district has a District Committee and a District Assembly. The head of the municipality is the President of the municipality, while the executive power is held by a Municipality Council, and legislative power by a Municipality Assembly. The Municipality Assemblies are elected every 4 years, while the President and the Council are elected by the Assembly.
Armed forces of Serbia
The armed forces consist of the land and air forces. The Ministry of War is in command of the armed forces. According to the law all males between 17 and 50 years were subjects of military service. The Serbian armed forces modernization and reorganization follow French model. Most recently a Serbian-French air force cooperation was signed.
The Armed forces are organized in:
- National Army
- Serbian Aviation (Srpska Avijatika)
- Royal Serbian Navy, established after 1920.