The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian:Regatul României) is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Austria-Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south.
In 1916 Romania entered World War I World War I on the Entente side, but was quickly defeated and partially occupied by German forces. Romania engages in a conflict against Bulgaria but as a result Bulgarian forces, after a series of successful battles, regain Dobruja that was previously taken from Bulgaria by the treaty of Bucharest and the Berlin Congress. Although the Romanian forces did not fare well militarily, by the end of the war armies of the Kingdom of Bulgaria, German and Russian empires had retreated or were gone.
In May 1920 Moldavia became part of Romania.
However Romanian irredentism was unsatisfied because Transylvania was not annexed as part of Greater Romania (România Mare). The elite of the Transylvanian Romanians did not support the concept of "Greater Romania", instead they wanted only equality with the other nations in Transylvania. The concept became a political reality when, in 1881, the Romanian National Party of Transylvania gathered Romanians on a common political platform to fight together for Transylvania's autonomy. The Hungarian Civil War and Federal Solution accomplish most of the platform of Transylvanian Romanians, Saxons and Székelys.
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The former Constitution of 1866 was reformed in 1879, 1883 and 1921. The Kingdom of Romania was defined as a unitary and indivisible national state, with an inalienable territory.
The state guaranteed freedom of expression and assembly, of conscience and of religion, and declared that as the Romanian Orthodox Church is the religion of the great majority of Romanians it is the dominant church in the Romanian State, while the Greek-Catholic Church has primacy before other faiths.
According to the new constitution the state powers are:
- executive power is exercised by the King, who delegates it to the Council of Ministers. The King names the president of the Council of Minister;
- legislative power is entrusted to Parliament (Senate and Assembly of Deputies). The Assembly of Deputies was elected through universal suffrage, while the Senate comprised members elected by different electoral bodies (the Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture and Labor, and professors, all divided into separate colleges), and members by right: the heir to the throne; bishops of the Orthodox and Greek-Catholic churches; heads of state-recognised religious bodies; the president of the Romanian Academy; former presidents of the Council of Ministers; former ministers with at least six years’ seniority; former presidents of either legislative chamber; former senators and deputies elected to at least ten legislatures, irrespective of their duration; former presidents of the High Court of Cassation and Justice; reserve and retired generals.
- the judicial power rests in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, Courts of Appeal, county courts, Bucharest Municipal Court and local courts
The right to vote was expanded beyond the 1866 regulations: it was universal for all males, equal, direct, compulsory and secret, based on majority representation.
Internal administrative division
According to the administrative unification law, the territory was divided in counties (județe), districts (plăși) and communes.
At each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county; he is also the head of local administration for areas not delegated to local authorities and in charged with exercising "control and supervision over all local authorities". Each plăși is administered by a pretor, appointed by the prefect.
The main parties can be sorted in the following groups
- the Conservative Party, reorganized in the Conservative Nationalist Party (PCN), and the postwar People's Party (PP)
- Liberals organized in the National Liberal Party (PNL), the dominant party in the years immediately after World War I,and increasingly clientelist and nationalist, and
- Various agrarian parties such as the Peasants' Party (PȚ), Besarrabian Peasants' Party (PŢB), National Peasants' Party (PNȚ, a merge of the PŢ and PȚB) and Democratic Agrarian Party (PŢD, a left wing split of the PNȚ)
- People's Republican Union, the main social-liberal republican party, and
- Socialists and communists in the Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSDR) and Communist Party of Romania (PCdR).