In 1770, James Cook landed in Botany Bay, eastern Australia, to found a penal colony. The first settlement was soon called "Sydney" and the colony as a whole "New South Wales". British settlers began to spread across the south-eastern part of the continent and, in 1792, also across Van-Diemens-Land, today's Tasmania. In 1795, the HRS Hamburg, a ship on service of the senate of the Hanseatic Republic, established an outpost on the Cape York Peninsula, Marienhafen. From this point on, the British were not alone on this new continent anymore and competition started. The struggle for power and influence, especially on the fertile east coast, finally led to the so called "Two-Weeks-War" or "Winter War". It started on June 16, 1832 with the Hansa invading the British District Prince being the casus belli. It ended on July 1, 1832 without any territorial accomplishments for one side or the other. To prevent another military conflict in Australia, both parties signed the Treaty of Lisbon. It separated the continent in a northern and a southern part between the two nations.
In the 1830s, nearly 4.000.000 people lived in the British Australian colonies, mostly in New South Wales. The cry for self-rule became louder. In 1834, the British parliament passed the "Dominion Act". The colony of New South Wales became the Dominion of New South Wales. From now on, New South Wales would rule itself for the most part, while the other British territories on the continent were still under the full control of London. A new south welsh parliament was established. The cities of Sydney and Melbourne fought for the function as new capital. Melbourne obtained the position after a drawing of lots.
In 1836, French troops invaded the then uncolonized southwest of Australia. The French settling of "Louis-Philippe-Land" provoked a diplomatic crisis, that was resolved with a territory exchange in Africa. To impede
the French in the expansion of Louis-Philippe-Land, Britain established new colonies in the west: The District Peel (est. 1838), the Territory of South Australia and the short-lived Territory of Victoria (both est. 1840).
In 1855, the District Nolan became a part of the dominion.
In 1863, the Pacific War broke out, in which the major colonial powers of the Pacific Ocean, the Hansa, Spain and the Netherlands on one side and the British Empire and France on the other side fought for the control of the disputed Fiji Islands and New Zealand. The Australian theater was relatively insignificant, even though the British, the French and the Hansa had their most important Pacific bases located on the continent. After the British-French victory in 1867, the District Prince annexed a part of the Hanseatic Kap-Jorck-Territory, today known as "New Prince Shire". The greater District Prince merged intro the Dominion in 1870.
While the Dominion was granted more and more land area on the continent, the people of Tasmania were not pleased with the work of their government in Melbourne. They wanted their own, insular government. After heavy protests in Melbourne, the British government permitted the detachment of Tasmania. After nearly 80 years of political unity with New South Wales, the island became its own District under direct British rule.
1878, the Peel District unified with the Territory of Southern Australia, in 1893, the Territory became the second Dominion on the continent. An economical and political rivalry between the governments in Perth and Melbourne began and continued till 1911. The "Republican Party of Southern Australia" received high voting results and many believed, that a violent independence movement could sweep away the Dominion government in favor of a "Southern Australian Republic". So the Dominion of New South Wales, heavily supported by the British government, annexed Southern Australia.
In the Great War, New South Wales captured Bismarck-Land, the former Louis-Philippe-Land. It became a British protectorate, later a New South Welsh county.
The road to independence
The Hanseatic overseas provinces in the north became independent in 1971 as the Federation of New Holland. This provoked a new discussion in New South Wales about the future of the country: Continue the existence as a British dominion or becoming a sovereign nation? The debate culminated in the Adelaide Conference of 1974. 600 delegates, 300 from Great Britain, 300 from New South Wales participated. The outcome was clear: 83,7% voted for an independent New South Wales. It should remain a parliamentary monarchy, with the monarch of Britain being the head of state.
Today, the Kingdom of New South Wales is a major power in the Indo-Pacific region.