Kingdom of Ma-i
Bansa nang Ma-i
(and largest city)
Li Han
Official languages Old Tagalog (Ma dialect)
Old Tagalog (Maynila dialect)
Government Absolute monarchy under the Ma dynasty
 -  Establishment 9th century 
 -  Proclamation of the Ma dynasty 1580 
 -  Annexation by Tondo 1582 
 -  1582 estimate 750,000 
Currency Ginto ()
Barter system

The Kingdom of Ma-i (Old Tagalog: 国的麻逸, tr. Bansa nang Ma-i) was a Kingdom that consisted of the island of Mindoro, several adjacent islands, and the Buruka prefecture. Ma-i shares a border with the Kingdom of Tondo to the north, and a maritime border with Madja-as Confederation to the south.

Established in the ninth century in what is now the Li Han city of the Buruka prefecture, it would come into contact with the Ming and become a Chinese tributary state as well as a major trading post within the region, expanding southwards into Mindoro. Close diplomatic and trading ties with the Chinese would prompt it to become the one of the first states (alongside Pangasinan) within the archipelago to experience the process of rigorous sinicisation. Ma-i would adopt Buddhist and neo–Confucian doctrines, Chinese customs and clothing over local equivalents.

In the 15th century, the Bruneian Empire conquered Ma-i to establish a foothold within the archipelago, and as a gateway to the Tondo. Under pressure from the Bruneians, much of the elite and royalty reluctantly submitted to Islam, while the vast majority remained followers of the Buddhist faith. In 1578, after regaining its independence after the Bruneian–Spanish War, the Ma royalty would re-adopt Chinese culture, adopt Ma surname and proclaim the Ma dynasty. The Ma dynasty would implement laws that specifically promote Chinese culture whilst downplaying Islam. This would worsen relations between the Buddhist majority and the Islamic elite, causing divide over the Ma Imperial court.

By 1580, internal religious divisions would have taken their toll on the integrity of Ma-i. Two years later, Ma-i would be fully annexed into Tondo, and would be the first among many states subjugated under the Tondo. However, nevertheless, the annexation of Ma-i would facilitate the process of sinicisation as many Buddhist missionaries travelled to Tondo to promote Chinese culture and Buddhism in place of local Hinduism.


Prior to Tondo contact

Red Blood Incident

Incorporation into Tondo




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