The Kingdom of France is the direct successor state of West Francia after the Treaty of Verdun split up the Carolingian Empire in 843 AD. It was largely known as "Francia" until the use of the name France came into play as early as 987 AD. Largely divided between families at first, it is as of the 12th century AD starting to centralise.
Relations with Córdoba
Ever since the Caliphate of Córdoba started to expand toward France, the two nations have had a fairly neutral opinion of each other, leading to successful exchange of ideas and economic deals. This would later show itself in later Crusades, in which the two nations ignored each other rather than engage in combat, despite being on opposite sides of the conflict.
The Normans, subject to the Kingdom of France, had settled south of the Papal States just before the turn of the century in 999 AD. They would with the support of the Papal States, remain in control of some of this land when the First Crusade began with the continuing advancement of the Fatimids. This fear of Fatimid Expansion up to the city of Rome, if not the city itself cemented Norman-Papal relations and the two would often be involved in subsequent Crusades.
French history is composed of many rivalries with another crown, the Kingdom of England. At times throughout its history, French territory on Mainland Europe has been subjected to annexation by treaty to the English Crown. However, in 1066 the Norman Conquest of England secured England under their rule. With time, the French Crown under the House of Capet would come into collision with the English Crown, which possessed the western half of France and was known collectively as the Angevin Empire. Victory for the French Crown under Philip II against English King Henry II would be the start of the French Repossession.