Kingdom of Butuan
Kingdom (before 1521)
Vassal state (after 1521)
Before March 17, 1001–1521 Flag of New Spain.svg
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg
Flag of Mindanao.png
Flag of the Philippines.svg
Capital Butuan
Official language Butuanon, Old Malay, Old Cebuano, Spanish (later)
Religion Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Animism, also Roman Catholicism as a Spanish vassal state
Government Kingdom, Rajahnate
 - ? - 1010 A.D. Rensi Guwang
 - ? - 1050 A.D. Pangsiwang
 - ? - 1499 A.D. Soloy
 - 1499 - 1505 A.D. Tunkin
 - 1505 - 1522 A.D. Kalahap
 - Established Before March 17, 1001
 - Annexation into the Spanish Empire 1521
The Rajahnate of Butuan or Kingdom of Butuan (Butuanon: Ginarian sa Butwan, Filipino: Kinaharian ng Butuan, Malay: Kerajaan Butuan, Jawi: كراجأن بوتوان , Cebuano: Gingharian sa Butuan; Chinese: 蒲端國, Púduānguó, Spanish: Reino de Butuan) was an ancient Indic and later Indo-Islamic polity and Spanish vassal centered on the present Mindanao island city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines. It was known for its mining of gold, its gold products and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area. The kingdom had trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Japan, China, India, Indonesia, Persia, Cambodia and areas now comprised in Thailand.

It is considered one of six of the "Great Kingdoms of Mindanao".

The balangay (large outrigger boats) that have been found along the east and west banks of the Libertad River (old Agusan River) have revealed much about Butuan's history. As a result, Butuan is considered to have been a major trading port in the Caraga region during the pre-colonial era

Originally a Hindu-following state, its last three rajahs, Soloy, Tunkin and Kalahap became Muslims with the arrival of Moro, Malay, Arab, Indian and Persian Islamic missionaries to the kingdom, which then converted many Butuanon natives to Islam. In 1521, the Spanish rulers encountered Rajah Kalahap, the ruling chieftain of the kingdom as well as his son Datu Kalaw. Like the neighboring Rajahnate of Bukidnon, Rajah Kalapah befriended the Spanish conquistadors and allowed Spanish and Filipino settlers, and Roman Catholic missionaries into his realm which he allowed to be a vassal state of the Spanish Empire.

However, in 1522 along with Rajah Aluy of the neighboring Rajahnate of Bukidnon, as well as Sultan Amirul-Umara of Sulu, Sultan Sharif Maka-Alang of Maguindanao, Sultan Saleh Tarik of Buluan and Sultan Yusuf of Lanao, signed a pact and formed an alliance with the effort of fighting the Spanish conquistadors in what is known as the Great War in Mindanao and Sulu. Rajah Kalahap was also joined by incoming Hindu migrants from Cebu, those Visayans who refused Roman Catholicism and Spanish rule.

However, the northern kingdoms of Mindanao, received the brunt of the Spanish attacks, and despite staging a valiant resistance, Rajah Kalapah and Rajah Aluy were both killed in battle. This caused the eventual downfall of both their kingdoms, and the retreating of the native warriors to the mountains.;

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