Kingdom of Bulgaria
Царство България
Flag of Bulgaria Coat of arms of Bulgaria (1927-1946)
Flag Coat of Arms
Map of Bulgaria during WWII
Official language(s) Bulgarian
Capital Sofia
Government Constitutional monarchy
Tsar Ferdinand I (First)
Simeon II (Last)
Prime Minister Aleksandar Malinov (First)
Andrey Lukanov (Last)
Legislature National Assembly
Currency Bulgarian lev (лв)
 - Independence declared September 22, 1908
 - Disestablished November, 1990

Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България), officially the Kingdom of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Царство България), was a country in southeastern Europe. It was bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.

Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians and later the Greeks and Romans. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 CE, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State.

The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Russia in the First World War and with Germany in the Second. In 1946 it became a single-party fascist state as part of the German-led Warsaw Pact. In December 1989 the government allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.

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