| Kingdom of Bukidnon |
Mata Bunukid (Manobo)
Kerajaan Bukidnon (Malay)
|Languages||Manobo languages, Higaonon, Talaandig, Old Malay, Sanskrit|
|Religion|| Buddhism, Hinduism, Paganism, Animism|
(later Roman Catholicism)
|-||983 A.D. - ?||Jīn Qiáng|
|-||1130 A.D. - ?||Rajah Gamhanan|
|-||1200 -1269 A.D.||Rajah Tudog|
|-||1280-1350 A.D.||Rajah Dakas|
|-||? - 1525 A.D.||Pedro Alúy|
|-||Discovery by Chinese travellers||983 A.D.|
|-||Defeat and annexation by the Spanish Empire||1525 A.D.|
|Currency||Gold and silver coins|
|Today part of||Philippines|
The king was discovered by Chinese travellers to the island around 983 A.D., who referred to it as "Wángguó Zhōng de Tíshì", or the "kingdom at the tip", due to the location of the kingdom at the near-tip of Mindanao. The king, was an invidual the Chinese referred to as "Jīn Qiáng", literally meaning "strong king" in Chinese.
The kingdom prospered, and traded with the nearby Rajahnate of Butuan located in northeastern Mindanao. At that point, the Manobo kings of Bukidnon adopted Indian influence, with their king, by the name of Gamhanan taking the title "Rajah" and adhering to Hindu deities around 1130 A.D. At that same time, Srivijayans arrived to commence relations between the Rajahnate of Bukidnon and the Srivijayan Empire, forging an allyship between the two nations. In 1298 A.D., during the reign of an individual Rajah Dakas, an allyship with the Majahapit Empire was formed with the arrival of Javanese and Indian envoys.
During the Spanish expedition into Mindanao, the conquistadors encountered a rajah by the name of Aluy in 1521 around the same time they encountered the rulers of Butuan. Rajah Aluy, though weary of the Spanish conquistadors, converted to Roman Catholicism and was given the name and title of Don Pedro. The Kingdom of Bukidnon was absorbed into the Spanish Empire, as a vassal state known as the "Realm of Bukidnon" in 1521 or the "Reino de Bukidnon".
However, later on, along with the other natives of Mindanao, Don Pedro rebelled and joined with the other five kingdoms: the Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sulu, Lanao, Buluan and Rajahnate of Butuan in the war effort against the Spanish Empire, forming the "Great Alliance of Six". However, Don Pedro was killed in battle, and the Spanish ended up vanquishing the kingdom's forces, resulting in the retreat of the Manobos into the mountains. Though, the retreating Manobos continued to attack as they retreated.